Effect of airborne lead pollution on some avenue trees in Moradabad city.


Affiliations

  • Pollution Ecology Research Laboratory, Deptt. of Botany, Hindu College, Moradabad, U.P, India

Abstract

The present investigation was undertaken to assess the atmospheric lead pollution on the highway and its effect on the leaves of some avenue trees. Emission of lead from the automobile exhaust contaminates soil and surrounding plants. Samples of unwashed leaves were used to assess the concentration level of lead (Pb) in plants and for the purpose the leaves of five different a venue plant species i. e. Holoptelea integrifolia , Ficus rumphii, Anthocephalus kadamba, Alstonia scholaris and Bauhinia variegata were collected from five different locations and were analyzed by ICP. The results indicate that among the plants Bauhinia variegata have the highest concentration of lead (I.SIpgg-^) at unpolluted site as well as at polluted site (4.56pgg-^) while Holoptelea intagrifolia the have the lowest (1.01 pgg'^) at unpolluted site compared to the polluted site (2.94pgg-^) possibly due to difference in plant morphology and leaf surfaces. On this basis it may be concluded that Holoptelea integrifolia, Ficus rumphii and Anthocephalus kadamba, are the resistant cultivars and may be grown as avenue trees near highways.

Keywords

Lead pollution, Avenue trees, automobile exhaust, gasoline.

Full Text:

References

Abdelaziz L.AI-Khlaifat and Omar A.AI - Ktiashman (2007) Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution in Aqaba city, Jordan,Using Phoenix dactylifera L.leaves. Atmos Environ., 41, 8891-8897.

Aksoy, A. and Sahin, U. (1999). Eleagnus angustifolia L. as a biomonitor of heavy metal pollution. Turk. J. Bot., 23, 83-87.

Awasthi, S.K. (2000) Prevention of food adulteration act no. 37 of 1954. Central and state rules as amended for 1999, third ed. Ashoka Law House, Nevtr Delhi.

Aydinalp C. and Marinova (2004) Lead in particulates deposits and in leaves of roadside plants. Poll.J. Environ.Stud., 13, 233-235.

Baptista, M.S., Teresa, M., Vasconcelos, S.D., Cabral, J. P., Freitas, M. C, Adriano and M.G.Pacheco (2008) Copper,Nickel and Lead in lichen and tree bark transplants over different periods of time. Environ. Poll.. 151, 408413.

Bealey, W.J., Mcdonald,A.G, Nemitz, R., Donovan, R., Dragosits, U., Duffy, T.R. and Flow^er, D.(2007) Estimating the reduction of urban PM10 concentrations by trees within an environmental information system for planners. J.Environ. Maneg., 85, 44-58.

BidarG, Pruvot, C, Garcon, G, Verdin, A., Shirali, P. and Douay, F. (2009) Seasonal and annual variation metal uptake, bioaccumulation and toxicity in Tryfolium repens and Lolium perenne growing in a heavy metal contaminated field. Environ. Sci. Pollu. Res., 16, 42-53.

Measurement and modeling of respirable particulate (PM.^) and lead pollution over Madurai,India. Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health., 1, 45-55.

Chang , L., Kyu, L., Jun, H. , Young, Y. and Joon, K. (2004) Selection of Tolerant plants and their arrangement to restore a forest Ecosystem damaged by air pollution . Water, air soil pollution., 156, 251-273.

Cirera L., Rodriguez, M., Gimenez, J., Jimenez, E., Saez, M., Guillen, J., Medrano, J., Victoria, M., Ball-ester, F, Grau, 8. and Navarro, C. (2009) Effect of Public health interventions on industrial emissions and ambient air in Cartagena, Spain. Environ. Sci. Poll. Res., 16, 152-161.

Ishii, S., Bell, J.N.B. and Marshall, F.M. ( 2007) Phytotoxic Risk assessment of Ambient air pollution on Agricultural crops in Selangor state, Malaysia. Environ. Poll., 150, 267-279.

Joshi, P. and Swami, A. (2007). Physiological responses of some tree species under road sides automobile pollution stress around city of Haridwar, India. The Environmentalist., 27, 365-374.

Klumpp, A., W. Ansel, G. Klumpp, J. Breuer, P. Vergne, M.J. Sanz, S. Rasmussen,A. R. Artola, J. Penuelas, S. He, J.P. Garrec and V. Calatayud (2009). Air borne trace metal element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposer of standardised ryegrass culture. Atmos. Environ., 43, 329-339.

Kopittke, P. M. Colin, J. A,, Rosemary, A. Kopittke and Neal W.Menzics (2007) Toxic effect of Pb^* on Growth of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculate). Environ.Poll., 150, 280-287.

Kumar, N., Baodh, K,Singh, R.,Anand, K., Barman, S.S. and Singh, DP. (2009). Phytotoxicity to trace metals to gram (Cicer arientinum) and mung {Phaseolus mungo). J.Ecophysiol.Occup.Hlth., 9, 59-65.

Kozlov, M.V., Haukioja, E., Bakhtiarov, A.V., Stroganov, D.N. and Zimina, S.N. (2000). Root versus canopy uptake of heavy metals by birch in an industrially polluted area: contrasting behavior of nickel and copper. Environ. Poll., 107, 413-420.

Kummer, U., Pacyna, J., Pacyna, E. and Friedrich, R. (2009) Assessment of heavy metal releases from the use phase of road transport in Europe. Atmos. Environ., 43, 640-647.

Maher, B.A., Moor, C. and Matzka (2008). Spatial variation in vehicle-derived metal pollution identified by magnetic and elemental analysis of road side tree leaves. Atmos. Environ., 42, 364-373.

MECA (2003) The case for banning lead in Gasoline manufacturers of emission controls association.Washington, DC, USA, 51.

Monaci.F., Moni, R, Lanciotti, E., Grenchi. D. and Bargagli, R. (2000). Biomonitoring of airborne metal in urban environment : new tracers of vehicle emission, in place of lead . Environ. Pollu., 107, 321-327.

Naik, V.B and Deshpande, U.D.(2000) An evaulation of the roadside plants as Bioindicators of Atmospheric lead pollution . Ind.J.Environ. HIth., 42, 92-93.

Okuda T, Katsuno M., Naoi D.Nakao S., Tanaka S., He K., Ma Y., Lei Y and Jia Y. (2008) Trends in hazardous trace metal concentrations in aerosols collected in Beijing, China from 2001 to 2006, Chemospher, 72, 917-924.

Onder, S. and S. Dersun (2006). Airborne heavy metal pollution of Cedar livani in the city center of Konya (Turkey). Atmos. Environ., 40, 1122-1133.

Pacyna J.M., Pacyna E.G. and Aas W. (2009) Changes of emissions and atmospheric deposition of heavy metals, Atmos. Environ., 43, 117-127.

Peachey, C.J., Sinnet, Wilkinson, D., M., Morgan, G.W., Freersmith, RH. and Hutchings, T.R. (2009) Deposition and solubility of airborne metals to four plant species grown at varying distances from two heavily trafficked roads in London. Environ. Poll., 157, 2291-2299.

Ross, S.M. (1994) Retention, transformation and mobility of toxic metals in soil. In: Ross, S.M. (Ed.), Toxic Metals in Soil-Plant System. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester., 63-152.

Sabbioni, E. (1981) Heavy metal pollution andenvironmental biochemical toxicology research. Sci. Tot. Environ., 20, 95-97.

Shannigrahi , A.S., Fukushima, T. and Sharma, R.C.(2004) Anticipated Air Pollution Tolerance of some plants species considered for green belt development in and around and industrial / Urban area in India: An Overviews. Int. J. Environ. Sfu.,61, 125-137.

Sharma, R.K., Agrawal, M. and Marshall, P.M. (2008) Heavy metal concentration of vegetables urban India; A case study in Varanasi. Environ. Poll., 154 , 254-263.

Singh, N., Kayal,N., Gupta, RK. and Agrawal, A.K. ( 2010) Monitoring the trace metals concentration in Rice by flame atomic absorption spectrometer and Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. J. Environ. Science Engg., 52, 33-36.

Singh R.R, Tripathi, R.D., Sinha, S.K., Maheshwari, R. and Srivastava, H.S. (1997). Response of higher plants to lead contaminated environment. Chemesphere., 34,2467.

Singh , S., Barman, S.C, Negi, M.RS. and Bhargava, S.K. (2008) Metals concentration associated with respirable particulate matter (PM,„) in industrial area of eastern U.P. India J.Environ.Biol., 29, 63-68 .

Tripathi, A. (1994). Airborne Lead Pollution in the City of Varanasi. Atmos. Environ., 28, 2317-2323.

Tripathi, A., Dwivedi,A.K. and Mahima. (2010). Airborne Cu and Zn at some urban sites in pital nagri (Moradabad). India. J. Environ. Sci. Eng., 52, 53-56.

Tripathi, A.,Tiwari, P.B., Mahima and D.Singh., (2009) Assessment of air pollution tolerance index of some trees in moradabad city, India. J. Environ. Bio., 30, 545-550.

Tripathi, R.M., Khandekar, R.N., Raghunath, R. and Mishra, U C. (1989) Assessment of atmospheric pollution from toxic heavy Metal in two cities in India. Atmos. Environ., 23, 879-883.

Tripathi, R.M., Khandekar, R.N. and Mishra, U.C. (1990) Toxic trace metal in the atmosphere of Moradabad (India). Ind J. Environ. HIth., 32, 140-147.

Tomasevic, M., Vukmirovic, Z., Rajsic, S., Tasic, M. and Stevanovic, B.(2005) Characterization of trace metal particles deposited on some deciduous tree leaves in an urban area. Chemosphere., 61, 753-760.

Tang ,Y.,R.Qiu, X.Zeng, R.Ying, F.Yu and Zhou. X (2009) Lead, Zinc, Cadmium hyperaccumulation and growth stimulation in Arabis paniculate franch. Environ. Exp Bot., 66, 126 -134.

Voutsa D.,A.Grimanis and C.Samara (1996) Trace elements in Vegetables grown in an industrial area in relation to soil and air particulate matter. Environ. Poll., 94, 325-335.

Yakupoglu, D., Guray, T., Sarica, D. and Kaya, Z. (2008) Determination of airborne lead concentration in Cichorium intybus I. in an urban environment. Turk J. Bot., 32, 319-324.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.