Cutaneous Symptoms and Rashes in Patients with HIV-Positive Infections (A Review Article)


  • Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Resident of Dermatology, Ahvaz, Iran, Islamic Republic of
  • Islamic Azad University, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Boukan Branch, Boukan, Iran, Islamic Republic of


Identifying the cutaneous symptom associated with HIV positive disease and investigating the kind of rashes can be helpful in early diagnosis of the disease. The extensity of skin disorders in HIV infection is widespread. Examination of the skin of these patients can be a good indicator of the status of the immune system as well as the patient's psychological status and also in early diagnosis can make a worthy help. We carried out a literature search (From 1990 to 2016) related to this issue through Google Scholar, Pub-MED, Scopus, Science Direct, and Iran DOC, by using keywords cutaneous symptoms, HIV positive, skin infection, warts, early diagnosis. Among 124 articles only 51 papers were related to skin infections. Review of the associated research, investigation the skin infections in HIV patients and early diagnosis made a great help in the treatment process, particularly in people with high-risk behaviors which leads to diagnosis the HIV in the early stages. The results of this study suggest the importance of cutaneous symptom in patients with HIV infection and early diagnosis to start the medical procedures.


Cutaneous Lesions, Early Diagnosis, HIV, Infection

Subject Discipline


Full Text:


Habif TP. Clinical dermatology. St Louis: Mosby; 1996. p.264–8.

Styer LM, Miller TT, Parker MM. Validation and clinical use of a sensitive HIV-2 viral load assay that uses a whole virus internal control. J ClinVirol. 2013; 58(Suppl 1):e127– 33.

Nasrullah M, Wesolowski LG, Meyer WA 3rd, et al. Performance of a fourth-generation HIV screening assay and an alternative HIV diagnostic testing algorithm. AIDS. 2013; 27(5):731–7.

Ananworanich J, Fletcher JL, Pinyakorn S, et al. A novel acute HIV infection staging system based on 4th generation immunoassay. Retrovirology. 2013; 10:56.

Delaney KP, Branson BM, Uniyal A, et al. Evaluation of the performance characteristics of 6 rapid HIV antibody tests. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52(2):257–63.

Gulick R. Herpes virus infection. In: Arndt KA, LeBoit PE, Robinson JK, et al.,editors. Cutaneous medicine and surgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; 1996. p.1079– 81.

Pneumocystis pneumonia--Los Angeles. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1981; 30:250–2.

Zolpa AR, Katz MH. HIV Infection. In: Tierney LMJr, McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA,editors. Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment. 46th ed. USA: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc; 2007. p. 1346–8.

Berger T. Cutaneous manifestations in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. West J Med. 1996; 164: 516–7.

Kumarasamy N, Solomon S, Madhivanan P, et al. Dermatologic manifestations among HIV patients in south India. Int J Dermatol. 2000; 39:192–5.

Cockerell CJ, Freidman-kein AE. Cutaneous signs of HIV infection. In: Broder Sed. Text book of AIDS Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Williams &Wilkins; 1994. p. 507–24.

Tinndall B, Barker S, Donovan B, et al. Characterization of the acute clinical illness associated with HIV infection. Arch Intern Med. 1998; 148:945–6.

Kinlock S, de Saussure PIT, Vanhems PH, et al. Primary HIV infection: a prospective and retrospective study. Poster presented at: 8th International Conference on AIDS;1992 July 19-24; Amesterdam.

Siegal FP, Lopez C, Hammer GS, et al. Severe AIDS in male homosexuals, manifested by chronic perianal ulcerative herpes simplex lesions. N Eng J Med. 1981; 305:1439–44.

Berger TG, Sawchuk WS, Leonardi C, et al. Epidermodysplasiaverruciformis— associated papilloma virus infection complicating HIV disease. Br J Dermatol. 1991; 124:79–83.

Katzman M, Carey JT, Elmets CA, et al. MolluscumcontagiosumandAIDS. Clincal and immunological details of two cases. Br J Dermatol. 1987; 116:131–8.

Lin CS, Penha PD, Krishnan MN, Zak FG. Cytomegalic inclusion disease of skin. Arch Dermatol 1981; 117:282–4.

Wong D, Shumack S. Managing HIV. Part 5: Treating secondary outcomes. 5.1 HIV and skin disease. Med J Aust. 1996; 164:352–6.

DromerF, Dupont B.The increasing problem of fungal infections in the immune compromised host. J Mycol Med. 1996; 6:1–6.

Zingman BS. Resolution of refractory AIDS-related mucosal candidiasis after initiation of didanosine plus saquinavir. N Eng J Med. 1996; 334:1674–5.

Stebbing J, Gazzard B, Mandalia S, et al. Antiretroviral treatment regimens and immune parameters in the prevention of systemic AIDS-related NHL. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22:2177–83.

USAID. Table of country-specific HIV /AIDS estimates and data, end 2003 July. [Accessed 4Sept 2009]. Available from:

Wong D, Shumack S. HIV and skin disease. In: Stewart G, editor. Managing HIV. North Sydney: Australasian Medical Publishing; 1997. p. 62–6.

Smith KJ, Skelton HG, Yeager J, et al. Cutaneous findings in HIV-1-positive patients: a 42-month prospective study. Military Medical Consortium for the Advancement of Retroviral Research (MMCARR). J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994; 31:746–57.

Tschachler E, Bergstresser PR, Stingl G, et al. HIV-related skin disease. Lancet. 1996; 348:659–3.

Freidman-Kien AE, Lafleur FL, Gendler E, et al. Herpes zoster: a possible early clinical sign for development of AIDS in high risk individuals. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986; 14:1023–8.

USAID. Management’s Discussion and Analysis 2006.

Supanaranond W, Desakorn V, Sitakalin C, Naing N, Chirachankul P. Cutaneous manifestations in HIVpositive patients. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2001 Mar; 32(1):171–6.

Schwartzman WA. Infections due to Rochalimaea: The expanding clinical spectrum. Clin Infect Dis. 1992; 15:893– 900.

Muhammad B, Eligius L, Mugusi F, Aris E, Chale S, Magao P, Josiah R, Moshi A, Swai A, Pallangyo N, Sandstrom E, Mhalu F, Biberfeld G, Pallangyo K. The prevalence and pattern of skin diseases in relation toCD4 counts among HIV-infected police officers in Dar es Salaam. Trop Doct. 2003 Jan; 33(1):44–8.

Spira R, Mignard M, Doutre MS, Morlat P, Dabis F. Prevalence of cutaneous disorders in a population of HIV-infected patients. Southwestern France, 1996. Grouped’Epidemiologie Clinique du SIDA en Aquitaine. Arch Dermatol. 1998 Oct; 134(10):1208–12.

Curtis SP, Edwards A. HIV in UK prisons: A review of seroprevalence, transmission and pattern of risk. IntJ STDAIDS. 1995; 6:387–91.

Murphy M, Gaffney K, Carey O, et al. The impact of HIV disease on Irish prison population. Int J STD-AIDS. 1992; 3:426–29.

Robert A Schwartz, Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV. 2016. Available from: 1133746-overview.

Leonor Lopes et al. Bacillary angiomatosis in a HIV-positive patient with poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat.2014; 22(4):294–7.


  • There are currently no refbacks.