Individual and External Catalysts and Barriers of Biking: A Community based Study in a Metropolis


  • Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad, Iran, Islamic Republic of


Biking has proven health, environmental and traffic benefits. To prevail biking at community infrastructures and "Bicycle Sharing Systems (BSS)" have been developed, but their effectiveness is dependent on people's attitudes and perceptions. We aim to investigate attitudes of people toward biking and related infrastructures with regard to demographic factors in Mashhad, Iran-a metropolis with unsuccessful BSS. The present work was conducted as a cross-sectional study at Mashhad, Iran, in 2015. In a multistage sampling, adult inhabitants were selected and data about their perceptions of benefits and barriers of biking were collected through a researcher-designed questionnaire. of 437 study participants with a mean ( ± SD) age of 29.9 ( ± 11.3) years, 250 (57.3%) were female. Only 3 (0.7%) of respondents used bikes. Positive attitudes were significantly associated with gender, marital status and occupation of participants. Car ownership was accompanied by higher perceptions of "tiredness of biking"(p = 0.02), its "low safety" (p = 0.02) and "time wasting" (p = 0.01). According to the results, cultural interventions are needed for biking promotion regardless of their socioeconomic status. Educational programs at academic settings are also valuable. Safety, convenience, and affordability of different groups of populations (like elderly and deprived people) should be regarded during designing and constructing biking infrastructures and setting participation rules.


Attitudes, Barriers, Bicycle Sharing System, Biking, Infrastructures, Perceptions

Subject Discipline

Communities and Urban Planning

Full Text:


Ahmadi S, Heidari A, Mirfardi A, Mardani Z. Sociological analysis of the relationship between attitudes toward biking and rates of bike using in short urban travels. Journal of Applied Sociology. 2013 Spring; 24(1):123–36. Persian.

Campbell ME, Bopp M. An examination of the relationship of interpersonal influences with walking and biking to work. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2013 Nov-Dec; 19(6):521–4.

de Geus B, De Smet S, Nijs J, Meeusen R. Determining the intensity and energy expenditure during commuter cycling. Br J Sports Med. 2007 Jan; 41(1):8–12.

Dill J, Voros K. Factors affecting bicycling demand: initial survey findings from the Portland, Oregon, region. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2007; 2031:9–17.

Garrard J, Rose G, Lo SK. Promoting transportation cycling for women: the role of bicycle infrastructure. Prev Med. 2008 Jan; 46(1):55–9.

Hataminejad H, Ashrafi Y. The role of bicycle in urban sustainable transportation case study: Bonab City. Human Geography Research Quarterly. 2010; 41(70):45–63. Persian.

Jing C, Zhao Z. Research on antecedents and consequences of factors affecting the bike sharing system—Lessons from capital bike share program in Washington, DC. International Conference on Logistics Engineering, Management and Computer Science (LEMCS 2015). 2015 July 29-31; Shenyang, China. Atlantis Press; 2015.

Khademolhoseini E, Rahmatu GH, Nejad RG. Investigation of the strategy for reducing load of urban traffic (Study of Shiraz). Amayesh. 2010 Spring; 3(8):1–19. Persian.

Afridi AK, Safdar M, Khattak MMAK, Khan A. Health risks of overweight and obesity-An over view. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2003; 2(6):350–60.

Khan EB, Ramsey LT, Brownson RC, Heath GW, Howza EH, Powell KE, et al. The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2002; 22(4):73–107.

Kollenberg W, Látková P, Vogt C, Rodríguez A. Active transportation among elementary-aged students: walking or biking to and from school. Proceedings of the 2008 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium; [Accessed 2016 Apr 8]; Available from: gtr/gtr-p-42papers/03knollenberg-p-42.pdf. p. 15–20.

Kovacs V. Seattle’s bicycle Stations: A social and infrastructure support network for tired, wet, and caffeine deprived cyclists, 2014, University of Washington. [Accessed 2016 Apr 8]; Available from:

Li J, Ren C, Shao B, Wang Q, He M, Dong J, et al. A solution for reallocating public bike among bike stations, in Networking, Sensing and Control (ICNSC). 9th IEEE International Conference 2012 April 11-14. p. 352–5.

Malekhoseini A, Dargahi MM, Hajisharifi A, Karaminejad T, Ramezanzade M. Investigating the factors influencing the use of common bicycles in urban transportation: a case study of Haft-Hoz and Madayen Quarters in District 8. Quarterly Geographical Journal of Chashmandaz-e-Zagros. 2012 Spring; 4(11):159–78. Persian.

Martin EW, Shaheen SA. Evaluating public transit modal shift dynamics in response to bikesharing: a tale of two US cities. Journal of Transport Geography. 2014; (41):315–24.

Mokhtari R. Geographical analysis of the role of bike in the transportation system of Isfahan. Urban-Regional Studies and Research (University of Isfahan). 2011 Summer; 3(9):101–22. Persian.

Mueller N, Rojas-Rueda D, Cole-Hunter T, De Nazelle A, Dons E, Gerike R, et al. Health impact assessment of active transportation: a systematic review. Prev Med. 2015 Jul; 76:103–14.

Oja P, Vuori I, Paronen O. Daily walking and cycling to work: their utility as health-enhancing physical activity. Patient Educ Couns. 1998 Apr; 33(1 Suppl):S87–94.

Pucher J, Dill J, Handy S. Infrastructure, programs, and policies to increase bicycling: An international review. Prev Med. 2010 Jan; 50 Suppl 1: S106–25.

Saghayi M, Sadeghi Z. Model for midterm programming for biking. Research and Urban Planning. 2013 Spring; 4(12):95–116. Persian.

Shephard RJ. Is active commuting the answer to population health? Sports Med. 2008 Sep; 38(9):751–8.

Shimode I, Nakamura F, Wang R. Social costs of private bike and public bike- for bicycle policy evaluation reflecting Japanese situation. Proceedings of International Symposium on City Planning 2013; [Accessed 2016 Apr 8]; Available from: p. 1–8.

Warburton DER, Nicol CW, Bredin SSD. Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2006; 174(6):801–9.

Wareham NJ, Sluijs EMF, Ekelund U. Physical activity and obesity prevention: a review of the current evidence. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2005; 64(2):229–47.

Zeng XM, Zhang YH. Bike sharing system in Foshan: planning & practice. In: Applied Mechanics and Materials. Trans Tech Pub. 2012 May; 178-181:1738–43.


  • There are currently no refbacks.