Efficacy of <i>Cymbopogon citratus</i> Stapf leaf extract as seed protectant against <i>Sitophilus zeamais</i> Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on stored maize (<i>Zea mays</i> L.)

Authors

  • Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, University of Uyo
  • Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
  • Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
  • Department of Forestry and Wildlife Resources Management, University of Calabar

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18311/jbc/2016/15540

Keywords:

Cymbopogon citratus extract, Toxicity, Zea mays protectant, Sitophilus zeamais, mortality

Abstract

A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the insecticidal property of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract as seed protectant against maize weevil. One (1) gram each of acetone, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts were re-suspended in 5 ml of deionized water and used to impregnate filter papers set in four replicates. Varied concentrations of the aqueous extract per 50 g of Zea mays grains infested with 10 pairs of sexed Sitophilus zeamais for 28 days were tested for insecticidal properties and compared with experimental and synthetic conventional insecticide [Coopex (0.25 g)] controls. Parameters assessed were effect of C. citratus extracts on weevil mortality (toxicity test) and protection of maize against S. zeamais. Data obtained were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and means were separated using New Duncan Multiple Range Test at 5% level of significance. Results showed significant (P < 0.05) concentration and duration dependent mortalities of S. zeamais. The aqueous extract gave the highest protection of the maize grains followed by chloroform, methanol and acetone extracts respectively. The insecticidal potency of C. citratus extracts and its availability places it as an attractive biopesticide in traditional post-harvest seed protection.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Abdullahi N, Majeed Q. 2010. Evaluations of the efficacy of Vittelaria paradoxa seed powder on oviposition, eggs viability and mortality of Callosobruchus maculatus on treated cowpea seed. Afr J Gen Agric. 6(4): 289–293.

Acharya V, Young BR. 2008. A review of the potential of bio-ethanol in New Zealand. Bull Sci Tech Soc. 28(2): 143–147.

Adebe F, Tefera T, Mugo S, Beyene Y, Vidal S. 2009. Resistance of maize varieties to the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Afr J Biotech. 8(21): 5937–5943.

Adedire CO, Ajayi TS. 1996. Assessment of the insecticidal properties of some plant extracts as grain protection against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. Niger J Entomol. 13: 93–101.

Adegbola SD. 1990. The role of Nigeria stored product research institute in Nigeria: Nigeria march towards self–sufficiency in food. NSPRI Occasion Pap Ser. 1: 1–17

Akpabot FM, Udo IO, Ndaeyo NU. 2010. Evaluation of five local spices for the control of Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.) in stored maize. Niger J Agric Food Environ. 6(3 & 4): 29–33.

Berenbaum MR. 1995. Bugs in the system: insects and their impact on human affairs. Perseus Publishing, Perseus Books Group, New York, USA.

Cherry AJ, Bantino A, Djegui D, Lomers C. 2004. Suppression of the stem borer Sitophilus zeamais (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize following seed dressing, tropical application and stem injection with African isolates of Beanveria bassiana. Int J Pest Manage. 50(1): 67–73.

Denloye AA, Makanjuola WA, Teslim OK, Alafia OA, Kasali AA, Eshilokun AO. 2010. Toxicity of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) products from Nigeria against three storage insects. J Plant Protect Res. 50(3): 379–384.

Dike MC, Mbah OT. 1992. Evaluation of the lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) products on control of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on stored cowpea. Niger J Plant Prod. 14: 81–91.

Duncan DB. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics. 11: 1–42.

Edelduok E, Akpabio E, Eyo JE, Ekpe E. 2012. Bio-insecticidal potentials of testa powder of melon, Citrullus vulgaris Schrad for reducing infestation of maize grains by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. J Biol Agric Healthcare 2(8): 13–17.

Eicher CK, Byerlee D. 1997. Accelerating maize production synthesis. pp. 247–262. In: Byerlee D, Eicher CK. (Eds.). Africa's emerging maize revolution. Reinner Publishers, England.

Epidi TT, Udo IO, Osakwe JA. 2009. Susceptibility of Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. andCallosobruchus maculatus F. to plant parts of Ricinodendron heudelotii. J Plant Protect Res. 49(4): 411–415.

FAO. 1998. Prevention of post-harvest food losses. Training Series No. 10 (120). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

Harborne JB, Williams CA. 2000. Advances in flavonoid research since 1992. J Phytochem. 55: 481–504.

Inyang UE, Emosirue SO. 2005. Laboratory assessment of the repellent and antifeedant properties of aqueous extracts of 13 plants against banana's weevil Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Trop Subtrop Agro Ecosys. 5(1): 33–44.

Inyang UE. 2004. The potential threshold level, relative abundance, life cycle and control of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on plantain in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. PhD Thesis, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike.

Kabeh JD, Lale NES. 2004. Effects of pre-harvest sprays of neem seed products and pirimiphos methyl and harvest time modification on infestation of cowpeas by storage bruchids in the field and store in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Niger J Entomol. 21: 104–116.

Lale NES. 1992. A laboratory study of the comparative toxicity of products from three spices to the maize weevil. Postharvest Biol Technol. 2(1): 61–64.

Maina YT, Lale NES. 2004. Efficacy of integrating varietal resistance and neem seed oil for the management of Callosobruchus maculatus infesting bambara groundnut in storage. Niger J Entomol. 2: 94–103.

Manzoor F, Naim G, Saif S, Malik SA. 2011. Effect of ethanolic plant extracts on three storage grain pests of economic importance. Pak J Bot. 43(6): 2941–2946.

Momeni J, Djoulde RD, Akam MT, Kimbu SF. 2005. Chemical constituents and antibacterial activities of the stem bark extracts of Ricinodendron heudelotii (Euphorbiaceae). Indian J Pharm Sci. 67(3): 386–389.

Morris G. 2007. South Africa: biofuels – setting boundaries. Academic Press, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Murugan K, Senthil K, Jeyabalan D, Babu R, Senthil N. 1999. Interactive effect of neem products on the control of pulse beetle, C. maculatus (F.). Neem News Let. 15: 41–44.

Nawrot J, Harmstha J, Kostova I, Ognyanov I. 1998. Antifeedant activity of rotenone and some derivatives towards selected insect storage pests. "ŽBiochem Syst Ecol. 7(1): 55–57.

Obeng-Ofori D, Reichmuth CH, Bekele AJ, Hassanali A. 1998. Toxicity and protectant potential of camphor, a major component of essential oil of Ocimum kilimandscharicum against four stored product beetles. Int J Pest Manage. 44(4): 203–209.

Ogban EI, Ukpong IG, Oku EE, Usua EJ, Udo SE, Ogbeche JO, Ajang RO. 2015. Potentials of two indigenous plants powder for the control of stored maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky). Am J Exp Agric. 5(1): 12–17.

Okonkwo EU, Okoye WJ. 1996. The efficacy of four seed powders and the essential oils as protectants of cowpea and maize grains against infestation by Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais in Nigeria. Int J Pest Manage. 42(3): 143–146.

Okunji CO, Iwu MM, Jackson JE, Tally JD. 1996. Biological activity of saponins from two Dracaena species. Adv Exp Med Biol. 404: 415–428.

Oloyede OI. 2009. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon citratus leaves. J Nat Prod. 2: 98–103.

Onu I, Baba GO. 2003. Evaluation of neem products for the control of dermestid beetle on dried fish. J Entomol. 20: 105–115.

Pimentel D. 2007. Area-wide pest management: environmental, economic and food issues. pp: 143–150. In: Vreysen MJB, Robinson AS, Hendrichs A. (Eds.). Area-wide control of insect pests. Springer, Netherlands.

Pingali PL, Pandey S. 2000. Meeting world need: technological opportunities and priorities for the public sector. In: Singh V. (Ed.). World maize facts and trends. Sao Paulo Group, New Delhi, India. pp. 1–9.

Polaszek A, Khan ZR. 1998. Host plants. In: Polaszak A. (Ed.). African cereal stem borers, economic importance, taxonomy, natural enemies and control. CABI Publishing, New York.

Sanchez PA, Shepherd KD, Soule MJ, Place FM, Burech RJ. 1997. Soil fertility replenishment in Africa: an investment in natural resource capital. pp: 1–46. In: Burech RJ, Sanchez PA. (Eds.). Replenishing soil fertility in Africa. Special Publication No. 51. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.

Schmutterer H. 1995. The neem tree- source of unique natural products for integrated pest management, medicine, industry and other purposes. VCH Publisher, New York.

Sekoai PT, Yoro KO. 2016. Biofuel development initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa: opportunities and challenges. Climate. 4: 33. Doi:10.3390/cli4020033

Seshu-Reddy KV. 1998. Maize and sorghum: East Africa. pp: 8–19. In: Polaszek A. (Ed.). African cereal stem borers, economic importance, taxonomy, natural enemies and control. CABI Publishing, New York.

Stanning F. 1989. Small holder maize production and sales in Zimbabwe: some distributional aspects. Food Policy 14(3): 260–267.

Udo IO. 2005. Evaluation of the potential of some local spices as stored grain protectants against maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motsch (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J App Sci Environ Manage. 9(1): 165–168.

Udo, IO, Ekanem MS, Inyang EU. 2011. Laboratory evaluation of West African black pepper (Piper guineense) seed powder against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch). Munis Entomol Zool J. 6(2): 1003–1007

Downloads

Published

2017-06-21

How to Cite

Oboho, D., Eyo, J., Ekeh, F., & Okweche, S. (2017). Efficacy of <i>Cymbopogon citratus</i> Stapf leaf extract as seed protectant against <i>Sitophilus zeamais</i> Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on stored maize (<i>Zea mays</i> L.). Journal of Biological Control, 30(4), 220–225. https://doi.org/10.18311/jbc/2016/15540

Issue

Section

Research Articles