Evaluation of Aphytis melinus De Bach (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae) in Citrus Orchards as a Biocontrol Agent of Black Scale, Parlatoria ziziphi (Lucas) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) in Egypt


Abstract

The black parlatoria scale, Parlatoria ziziphi (Lucas) (Coccoidea: Diaspididae), is one of the most important pests attacking citrus trees in different parts of the world including Egypt. This work deals with rearing, release and evaluation of the parasitoid, Aphytis melinus De Bach (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) to control P. ziziphi biologically. In all, 250000 adult parasitoid individuals were released monthly on citrus at five locations in Cairo, Giza and Qalyubiya governorates during 2006 and 2007. At Heliopolis (Cairo), where A. melinus was present prior to the augmentative release, the per cent parasitism in the control block was 15 and 75% while it was 73 and 87% in the treatment block during the two years under consideration. At Dokki (Giza) also, A. melinus was present prior to the augmentative releases and the peak of parasitism reached 18 and 82% in the control block, compared to 86 and 91% in the treatment block. At El-Qanater El-Khriya and Tukh in Qalyubiya, A. melinus was present prior to the augmentative releases. In El-Qanater El-Khriya, the peak of parasitism reached 41 and 67% in the treatment block, compared to 8 and 46% in the control block. In Tukh, the peak of parasitism reached 31 and 65% in the treatment block, compared to 4 and 35% in the check block. At Qalub, where the parasitoid was not present prior to the augmentative releases, the peak of parasitism reached 22 and 36% in the treatment block, compared to 0 and 22% in the control block during the two years, respectively.

Keywords

Aphytis melinus, Citrus, Evaluation, Orchards and Parlatoria ziziphi.

Subject Discipline

Agriculture Sciences

Full Text:

References

Abd-Rabou, S. 1997. Parasitoids attacking some species of scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) in Egypt. Proceeding of the First Scientific Conference of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture Assiut University, Vol. II, 727-736.

Abd-Rabou, S. 1999. Parasitoids attacking the Egyptian species of armored scale insects (Homoptera: Diaspipidae). Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 77: 1113-1129.

Abd-Rabou, S. 2001. The effect of augmentative releases of indigenous parasitoids on populations of Parlatoria oleae (Clovee’) (Homoptera: Coccidea) in olive groves in Egypt. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura, 33: 473- 481.

Borchsenius, N. S. 1966. A catalogue of the armoured scale insects (Diaspidoidea) of the world. (In Russian.) Nauka, Moscow, Leningrad, Russia. 449 pp.

Coll, M. and Abd-Rabou, S. 1998. Effect of oil emulsion sprays on parasitoids of the black parlatoria, Parlatoria ziziphi, in grapefruit. BioControl, 43: 29-37.

Dekle, G. W. 1976. Florida armored scale insects. Revised edition. Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas, Volume 3. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida, USA. 345 pp.

El-Kaoutari, I., Guirrou, Z., Chemseddine, M., Boumezzough, A. 2004. Role of Aphytis melinus (DeBach) in the natural control of Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) in citrus orchards in Morocco. Fruits, 59: 169-179.

Huang, L. L., Wang, D. W., Zhang, Q. B., Lei, H. D. and Yue, B. S. 1988. Study of bionomics and control of Parlatoria ziziphus. Acta Phytophylactica Sinica, 15: 15-21.

Morgan, D., Hare, J. W. and Daniel, J. 1998. Volatile cues used by the parasitoid, Aphytis melinus, for host location: California red scale revisited. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 88: 235-245.

Rosen, D. 1990. Armoured scale insects, their biology, natural enemies and control. Vol. 4A. World Crop Pests. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Salama, H. S., El Aherif, A. F. and Megahed, M. 1995. Soil nutrients affecting the population density of Parlatoria ziziphus (Lucas) and Icerya purchasi Mask. (Homomptera, Coccoidea) on citrus seedlings. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 99: 471-476.

Williams, J. R. and Williams, D. J. 1988. Homoptera of the Mascarene Islands - an annotated catalogue. Entomology Memoir, Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Republic of South Africa No. 72: 1-98.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.