Anticonvulsant and Antioxidant Effects of Methanol Extract of Stems of G. arborea Roxb.
Gmelina arborea Roxb. (Verbenaceae) is greatly valued plant reported in Indian traditional system of medicine for various ailments. In this study, anticonvulsant and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of stems (MES) of Gmelina arborea Roxb. was investigated. Protective effects were evaluated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (60 mg/kg, s.c.) and strychnine (STR) (2 mg/kg, i.p.) induced seizure models in adult albino mice (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) using diazepam as a standard.
Total phenolics and flavonoids content in MES were determined and antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2- picryl- hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and through reducing power assay. The onset and duration of seizures (tonic-clonic convulsions), mortality rate and number of mice convulsing or not convulsing within the observation period were noted in PTZ and STR induced seizure models. MES showed good reductive capability and free radical scavenging effects with IC50 47.47 µg/ml for DPPH radical assay and 97.33 µg/ml for hydrogen peroxidescavenging in a dose dependent manner.MES at the dose of 500 mg/kg, exhibited maximum delay in onset of convulsions (8.188 min in PTZ and 11.81 min in STR induced seizures) in both the models with increased latency period.
The suppression of seizures by MES (500 mg/kg) might be observed due to enhanced gamma amino butyric acid neurotransmission in PTZ induced animals. The constituents of MES might also have glycine inhibitory potential to impart protection in STR induces seizures in our study. Further considerable presence of flavonoids and phenolic have provided good antioxidant activity as a supportive underlying mechanism for anticonvulsant effects. This study justifies the multilevel therapeutic uses of stem bark and heartwood of G. arborea in Indian system of medicine.
Jobst BC. What Is a Seizure? Insights from Human Single-Neuron Recordings. Epilepsy Curr. 2012; 12:135–7.
Kumar S, Madaan R, Bansal G, Jamwal A, Sharma A. Plants and Plant Products with Potential Anticonvulsant Activity – A Review. Phcog Commn. 2012; 2(1):3–99.
Hasan S, Dwivedi V, Misra M, Singh PK, Hashmi F, Ahmed T. Anti-epileptic activity of some medicinal plants. Int J Med Arom Plants. 2012; 2(2):354–60.
Anonymous. The Wealth of India, Raw Materials. Volume IV. New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; 1956.
Sharma BP, Balakrishnav N. Flora of India, 2. India:Botanical survey of Calcutta; 1993.
Acharya NS, Acharya SR, Shah MB, Santani DD. Development of Pharmacognostical Parameters, and Estimation of ?-sitosterol using HPTLC in Roots of Gmelina arborea Roxb Phcog J. 2012; 4(30):1–9.
Deka L, Majumdar R, Dutta AM. Some Ayurvedic important plants from district Kamrup (Assam). Ancient Sci Life. 1983; 3(2):108–15.
Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN. Compendium of Indian medicinal plants, Volume 1. New Delhi: Central Drug Research Institute and Publication and Information Directorate; 1990.
Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra LC. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; 1999.
Tewari DN. A monograph on Gamari (Gmelina arborea Roxb.). Dehradun, India: International book distributors;1995.
Barik BR, Bhaumik T, Dey AK, Patra A, Chatterjee A. Premnazole, an isolated alkaloid of Premna integrifolia L. and Gmelina arborea L. with anti-inflammatory activity, Fitoterapia. 1976; 63(4):295–9.
Singh A, Malhotra S, Subban R. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents from Indian medicinal plants, IJIB. 2008;3(1):57–72.
Sinha S, Dixit P, Bhargava S, Devasagayam TPA, Ghaskabdi S. Bark and fruit extracts of Gmelina arborea protect liver cells from oxidative stress. Pharm Biology.2006; 44(4):237–43.
El-Mahmood AM, Doughari JH, Kiman HS. In vitro antimicrobial activity of crude leaf and stem bark extracts of Gmelina arborea (Roxb) against some pathogenic species of Enterobacteriaceae. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol.2010; 4(6):355–61.
Giri M, Divakar K, Goli D, Dighe SB. Anti-ulcer activity of leaves of Gmelina arborea plant in experimentally induced ulcer in Wistar rats. Pharmacologyonline. 2009; 1:102–10.
Shirwaikar A, Ghosh S, Rao PGM. Effect of Gmelina arborea Roxb leaves on wound healing in rats. J Nat Remedies. 2002; 3(1):45–7.
Khanna AK, Chander R, Kapoor NK. Hypolipidemic activity of Abana in rats. Fitoterapia. 1991; 62(3):271–5.
Kulkarni YA, Veeranjaneyulu A. Amelioration of STZ induced Type I diabetic nephropathy in rats by aphytomedicine: Gmelina arborea. FASEB J. 2010; 24:569–75.
Agunu A, Yusuf S, Andrew GO, Zezi AU, Abdurahman EM. Evaluation of five medicinal plants used in diarrhoea treatment in Nigeria. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 101:27–30.
Shukla SH, Saluja AK, Pandya SS. Modulating effect of Gmelina arborea Linn. on immunosuppressed albino rats. Pharmacognosy Res. 2010; 2(6):359–63.
Singleton VL, Rossi JA. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic - phosphotungustic acid reagents. Amer J Enol Viticult. 1965; 16:144–58.
Bahorun T, Gressier B, Trotin F, Brunete C, Dine T,Gazin J, Pinkas JC, Luycky M, Gazin M. Oxygen species scavenging activity of phenolics extracts from Hawthorn fresh plant organs and pharmaceuticals preparations.Drug Res. 1996; 46(11):1086–9.
Blois MS. Antioxidant Determinations by the Use of Stable Free Radical. Letters to Nature. 1958; 181:1199–200.
Hwang BY, Kim HS, Lee JH, Hong YS, Ro JS, Lee KS.Antioxidant benzoylated flavan-3-ol glycoside from Celastrus orbiculatus. Journal of Natural Products. 2001;64:82–4.
Patil SM, Kadam VJ, Ghosh R. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanol extract of stem bark of Gmelina arborea ROXB. (Verbenaceae). International Journal of PharmTech Research. 2009; 1(4):1408–84.
Ruch RJ, Cheng SJ, Klaunig JE. Prevention of cytotoxicity and inhibition of intracellular communication by antioxidant catechins isolated from Chinese green tea.Carcinogenesis. 1989; 10:1003–8.
Gupta M, Mazumdar UK, Gomathi P. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Galenga purpurea root. Phcog Mag. 2007; 3:219–25.
Vogel HG. Drug discovery and evaluation. 2nd ed. New York: Spinger publication; 2002.
Amabeoku GJ, Chikuni O. Cimetidine–induced seizures in mice: Antagonism by some GABAergic agents. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993; 46(12):2171–5.
Salahdeen HM, Yemitan OK. Neuropharmacological effects of aqueous leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnata in mice. Afr J Biomed Res. 2006; 9:101–7.
Shah K, Kulkarni Y, Chavan D. Toxicity study and analgesic activity of Gmelina arborea extract and its fractions.Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals. 2013; 4(1):71–4.
Acharya N, Barai P, Katariya H, Acharya S, Santani D. Evaluation of antidiabetic potential of roots and stems of G. arborea. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2015; 7(8):355–62.
Kulkarni Y, Veeranjaneyulu A. Toxicological studies on aqueous extract of Gmelina arborea in rodents. Pharm Biol. 2010; 48(12):1413–20.
Kulkarni YA, Veeranjaneyulu A. Toxicological evaluation of the methanol extract of Gmelina arborea Roxb. bark in mice and rats. Toxicol Int. 2012; 19(2):125–31.
Devi PU, Manocha A, Vohora D. Seizures, antiepileptics, antioxidants and oxidative stress: an insight for researchers.Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2008; 9(18):3169–77.
Koleva II, Van BTA, Linssen JPH, De GA, Evstatieva LN. Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: A comparative study on three testing methods. Phytochem Anal. 2002; 13:8–17.
Park HG, Yoon SY, Choi JY, Lee GS, Choi JH, Shin CY, Son KH, Lee YS, Kim WK, Ryu JH, Ko KH, Cheong JH. Anticonvulsant effect of wogonin isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007; 574:112–9.
Rogawski MA. Diverse mechanisms of antiepileptic drugs in the development pipeline. Epilepsy Res. 2006;69(3):273–94.
Rasilingam D, Duraisamy S, Subramanian R, Anticonvulsant activity of bioflavonoid gossypin. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2009; 4(1):51–4.
Salgueiro JB, Ardenghi P, Dias M, Ferreira MB, Izquierdo I, Medina JH. Anxiolytic natural and synthetic flavonoid ligands of the central benzodiazepine receptor have no effect on memory tasks in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav.1997; 58(4):887–91.
Biggio G, Cibin M, Diana M, Fadda F, Ferrara SD, Gallimberti L, Gessa GL, Mereu GP, Rossetti ZL, Serra M. Suppression of voluntary alcohol intake in rats and alcoholics by gamma-hydroxybutyric acid: a non-GABAergic mechanism. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol.1992; 47:281–8.
Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM. Pharmacology. 3rd ed. London: Churchill Livingstone, Longman Group; 1998.
Dhayabaran D, Florance J, Krsihnadas N, Indumathi, Muralidhar. Anticonvulsant activity of alcoholic root extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum. Rev Bras Farmacogn. 2012; 22(3):623–9.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.