Phenotypic alterations and cytokine expression by cadmium in murine lymphocytes: An in vitro and in vivo study


  • Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, 226001, India


No Abstract.


Murine thymocytes, splenocytes, phenotyping, cytokine release

Full Text:


Borgman, RF, Au, B and Chandra, RK (1986). Immunopathology of chronic cadmium administration in mice. Int. J. Immunopharmacol., 8: 813-817.

Cifone, MG, Alesse, E, Eugenio, R, Napolitano, T, Morrone, S et al. (1989). In vivo cadmium treatment alters natural killar activity and large granular lymphocyte number in the rat. Immunopharmacol., 18: 149-156.

Dan, G, Lall, SB and Rao, DN (2000). Humoral and cell mediated immune response to cadmium in mice. Drug Chem. Toxicol., 23: 349-360.

Descotes, J (1992). Immunotoxicology of cadmium. IARC Sci. Publ., 118: 385-390.

Dong, S, Shen, HM and Ong, CN (2001). Cadmium-induced apoptosis and phenotypic changes in mouse thymocytes. Mol. Cell Biochem., 222: 11-20.

Gupta, S, Yel, L, Kim, D, Kim, C, Chiplunkar, S and Gollapudi, S (2003). Arsenic trioxide induces apoptosis in peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets by inducing oxidative stress: a role of Bcl-2. Mol. Cancer Ther., 2: 711-719.

Lafuente, A, Gonzalez-Carracedo, A and Esquifino, AI (2004). Differential effects of cadmium on blood lymphocyte subsets. Biometals, 17: 451-456.

Lai, ZW, Fiore, NC, Gasiewicz, TA and Silverstone, AE (1998). 2,3,7,8 Tetrachlorodibenzo p dioxin and diethylstilbestrol affect thymocytes at different stages of development in fetal thymus organ culture. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 149: 167-177.

Liu, J, Liu, Y, Habeebu, SS and Klaassen, CD (1999). Metallothionein-null mice are highly susceptible to the hematotoxic and immunotoxic effects of chronic CdCl2 exposure. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 159: 98-108.

Kishimoto, H, Surh, CD and Sprent, J (1995). Upregulation of surface markers on dying thymocytes. J. Exp. Med., 181: 649-655.

Mackova, NO, Lenikova, S, Fedorocko, P, Brezani, P and Fedorockovo, A (1996). Effects of cadmium on haemopoiesis in irradiated and non-irradiated mice: 2. Relationship to the number of circulating blood cells and haemopoiesis. Physiol. Res., 45: 101-106.

Pathak, N and Khandelwal, S (2006a). Oxidative stress and apoptotic changes in murine splenocytes exposed to cadmium. Toxicol., 220: 26-36.

Pathak, N and Khandelwal, S (2006b). Influence of cadmium on murine thymocytes : potentiation of apoptosis and oxidative stress. Toxicol. Lett., 165: 121-132.

Pathak, N and Khandelwal, S (2007). Role of Oxidative stress and Apoptosis in Cadmium induced thymic atrophy and splenomegaly in mice. Toxicol. Lett., 169: 90-108.

Pathak, N and Khandelwal, S (2008). Impact of cadmium in T lymphocyte subsets and cytokine expression: Differential regulation by oxidative stress and apoptosis. Biometals, (in press), 21: 179-187.


  • There are currently no refbacks.