Protective Role of Tinospora cordifolia against Lead-induced Hepatotoxicity


Affiliations

  • Banasthali University, Bioscience and Biotechnology Department, Rajasthan, 304 022, India

Abstract

The importance of Tinospora cordifolia stem and leaves extract was investigated for its possible hepatoprotective effect in Swiss albino male mice against lead nitrate induced toxicity. Oral administration of plant extracts prevented the occurrence of lead nitrate induced liver damage. The decreased level of tissue enzymes, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and increased level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and acid phosphatase (ACP) were observed in mice treated with lead. Administration of aqueous stem extract (400 mg/kg body weight, orally) and aqueous leaves extract (400 mg/kg body weight, orally) along with the lead nitrate (5 mg/kg body weight, i.p. for 30 days) increased the activities of SOD and CAT and decreased the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and ACP enzymes in mice. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathology/histological examinations of liver section. Results of this study revealed that plant extract could afford protection against lead-induced hepatic damage.

Keywords

Biochemical changes, histopathology, lead nitrate, liver, mice, Tinospora cordifolia

Subject Discipline

Zoology

Full Text:

References

Anonymous. Wealth of India: Raw Materials. Vol. 10. New Delhi: CSIR; 1976.

Nadkami KM, Nadkami AK. Indian Meteria Medica. 3rd ed. Mumbai: M/ S Popular Prakasan Pvt. Ltd.; 1976.

Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants, New Delhi: CSIR; 1956.

Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal plants. Vol. 1. 2nd ed. New Connaught Place. Dehradun: M/s Bishen Singh, Mahendra Pal Singh; 1975.

Chopra RN, Chopra LC, Handa KD, Kapur LD, editors. Indigenous Drugs of India. 2 nd ed. Kolkata. M/s Dhar VN & Sons; 1982.

Nayampalli S, Ainapure SS, Nadkami PM. Study of antiallergic acid Bronchodilator effect of Tinospora cordifolia. Indian J Pharma 1982;14:64-6.

Zhao TF, Wang X, Rimando AM, Che C. Folkloric medicinal plant: Tinospora sagittata var. cravaniana and Mohonia bealei. Planta Med 1991;57:505-3.

Goyer RA. Lead toxicity: From overt to subclinical to subtle health effects. Env Health Perspect 1990;86:177-81.

Needleman HL, Jackson RI. Lead toxicity in the 21st century: Will we still be treating it? Padiatrics 1992;89:678-80.

Garef J. Lead poisoning management. Part 1-3. Clin Toxicol Rev 1992;14:8-121.

Hermes-Lima M, Pereira B, Bechara EJ. Are free radicals involved in Lead poisoning? Xenobiotica 1991;21:1085-90.

Skoczynska A, Smolik R, Jelen M. Lipid abnormalities in rats given small doses of Lead. Arch Toxicol 1993;67:200-4.

Stohs SJ, Bagchi D. Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Free Rad Biol Med 1995;18:321-6.

Locktich G. Perspectives on Lead toxicity. Clin Biochem 1993;26:371-281.

Grandjean P, Jacobsen IA, Jorgensen PJ. Chronic Lead poisoning treated with dimercaptosuccinic acid. Pharmacol Toxicol 1991;68:266-9.

Dalley JW, Gupta PK, Lam FC, Huang CT. Interaction of L-ascorbic acid on the deposition of Lead in rats. Pharmacol Toxicol 1989;64:160-4.

Chaurasia SS, Kar A. Protective effect of Vitamin E against Lead induced deterioration of membrane associated type I iodothyronine 5’-monodeiodinase (5’D-I) activity in male mice. Toxicol 1997;124:203-9.

Marklund S, Marklund G. Involvement of Superoxide anion radical in the autooxidation of pyrogallol and convenient assay for SOD. Eur J Biochem 1974;47:469-74.

Aebi H. Catalase, In Methods in enzymatic analysis. In: Bergmeyer H, editor. Vol.2. New York: Academic Press; 1983. P.76-80.

Reitman S, Frankel AS. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum Glutamic oxaloacetic and Glutamic pyruvic transaminase. Am J Clin Path 1957;28:53-6.

King E J, Armstrong. 2-4 DNPH method of determination of Serum GOT and GPT. Can Med Assoc J 1934;31;326.

Mc Manus FA, Mowry RW. Staining methods. In: Hoeber PB, editor. Histology and Histochemistry. New York: Harper and Brothers; 1965.

Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM. Protection against oxidants in biological systems: The Superoxide theory of oxygen toxicity. Free Radical in Biology and Medicine. Oxford: Clarendon Press; 1989. p. 86-123.

Halliwell B. Mechanism involved in the generation of free radicals. Pathol Biol 1996;44:6-13.

Lawton L, Donaldson WE. Lead-induced tissue fatty acid alterations and lipid peroxidation. Biol Trace Elem Res 1991;28:83-97.

Yiin SJ, Lin TH. Lead catalyzed peroxidation of essential unsaturated fatty acid. Biol Trace Elem Res 1995;50:167-72.

Maiti PK, Kar A, Gupta P, Chaurasia SS. Loss of membrane integrity and initiation of type I iodathyronine 5’-monodeiodinase activity by tenvalerate in female mouse. Biochem Biophy Res Comm 1995;214:905-9.

Chaurasia SS, Panda S, Kar A. Withania somnifera root extract in the regulation of Lead-induced oxidative damage in male mouse. Pharmacol Res 2000;41:663-6.

Chen LH, Lowry SR. Cellular antioxidant defense system. Prog Clin Biol Res 1989;287:247-56.

Winterbourne CC. Superoxide as an intra cellular sink. Free Rad Biol Med 1993;14:85-90.

Subramanian M, Chintalwar GJ, Chattopadhyay S. Antioxidant properties of a Tinospora cordifolia polysaccharide against Iron-mediated lipid damage and gamma ray induced protein damage. Redox Rep 2002;7:137-43.

Prince PS, Padmanaban M, Menon VP. Restoration of antioxidant defense by ethanolic Tinospora cordifolia roots extract in alloxan induced diabetic liver and kidney. Acta Pol Pharm 2004;61:282-7.

Bishayi B, Roychowdhury S, Ghosh S, Sengupta M. Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of Tinospora cordifolia in CCl4 intoxicated mature albino rats. J Toxicol Sci 2002;27:139-46.

Sivaprasad R, Nagaraj M, Varalakshmi P. Combined efficacies of lipoic acid and meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on Lead induced erythrocytes membrane lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in rats. Toxicol 2001;162:81-8.

Pandey M, Flora SJ. Lead induced oxidative damage and its response to combined administration of alpha-lipoic acid succimers in rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2004;18:221-33.

Tandon SK, Singh S, Prasad S. Influence of Garlic on the Disposition and Toxicity of Lead and Cadmium in the Rat. Pharm Biol 2001;1:450-4.

Khanam S, Devi K. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on Lead-induced DNA damage. J Food Agric Env 2005;3.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.