Cholinergic System Under Aluminium Toxicity in Rat Brain


Affiliations

  • Sri Venkateswara University, Department of Zoology, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract

The present investigation envisages the toxic effects of aluminium on the cholinergic system of male albino rat brain. Aluminium toxicity (LD50/24 h) evaluated as per Probit method was found to be 700 mg/kg body weight. One-fifth of lethal dose was taken as the sublethal dose. For acute dose studies, rats were given a single lethal dose of aluminium acetate orally for one day only and for chronic dose studies, the rats were administered with sublethal dose of aluminium acetate once in a day for 25 days continuously. The two constituents of the cholinergic system viz. acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase were determined in selected regions of rat brain such as cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and pons-medulla at selected time intervals/days under acute and chronic treatment with aluminium. The results revealed that while acetylcholinesterase activity was inhibited, acetylcholine level was elevated differentially in all the above mentioned areas of brain under aluminium toxicity, exhibiting area-specific response. All these changes in the cholinergic system were subsequently manifested in the behavior of rat exhibiting the symptoms such as adipsia, aphagia, hypokinesia, fatigue, seizures, etc. Restoration of the cholinergic system and overt behavior of rat to the near normal levels under chronic treatment indicated the onset of either detoxification mechanisms or development of tolerance to aluminium toxicity in the animal which was not probably so efficient under acute treatment.

Keywords

Aluminium acetate, behavioral changes, cholinergic system, rat brain

Subject Discipline

Zoology

Full Text:

References

Jensen KF, Varner JA, Horvath WJ, Isaacson RL. Chronic administration of aluminium-flouride or sodium-fluoride to rats in the drinking water: Alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity. Brain Res 1998;784:284-98.

Suarez-Fernandez MB, Soldado AB, Sanz-Medel A, Vaga JA, Novelli A, Fernandez-Sanchez MT. Aluminium-induced degeneration of astrocytes occurs via apoptosis and results in neuronal death. Brain Res 1999;835:125-36.

van der Voet GB, Schijns O, de Wolff FA. Flouride enhances the effect of aluminium chloride on interconnections between aggregates of hippocampal neurons. Arch Physiol Biochem 1999;101:15-21.

Morris CM, Candy JM, Oakley AE, Taylor GA, Moutfort S, Bishop H, et al. Comparison of the regional distribution of transferrin receptors in the forebrain of chronic renal dialysis patients. J Neurol Sci 1989;94:295-306.

Altmann P, Cunningham J, Dhanasha U, Ballard M, Thompson J. Disturbance of cerebral function in people exposed to drinking water contaminated with aluminium sulphate: Retrospective study of the camelford water incidence. Br Med J 1999;319:807-11.

Feldman RS, Meyer JS, Quenzer LF. Pr inciples of Neuropsychopharmacology. Massachusetts, USA: Sinauer Associates; 1997. p. 277-84.

Finney DJ. Probit analysis. 2nd ed. London: Cambridge University Press; 1964.

Metcalf RI. In: Glick, editor. Methods of Biochemical analysis. Vol. 5. New York: Interscience Publishers Inc; 1957.

Augustinsson KB. In: Glick D, editor. Methods of Biochemical Analysis. Vol. 5 New York: Interscience Publishers; 1957.

Ellman GL, Courtney KD, Featherstone RM. A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochem Pharmacol 1961;7:88-95.

Glowinski J, Iverson II. Regional studies on catecholamines in the rat brain. Neuropharmacol 1966;13:655-69.

Jankowska A, Madziar B, Tomaszewicz M, Szutowicz A. Acute and chronic effects of acetyl Co-A and acetylcholine metabolism in differentiated and non differentiated SN 56 cholinergic cells. J Neurosci Res 2000;62:615-22.

Zaman K, Zaman W, Siddique H. Haematological and enzymatic results of aluminium intoxication in rats. Comp Biochem 1993;105c:73-6.

Haris C, Vassilios T, Antonios S, Apostolosz, Stylianos T. Cadmium effects on brain acetylcholinesterase activity and antioxidant status of adult rats: Modulation by Zinc, Calcium and L-Cystine co-administration. Basic Clin Pharmacol 2005;97:320-4.

Ani M, Moshtaghie AA, Aghadavood M. Protective effects of selenium and zinc on the brain acetyl-cholinesterase activity in lead intoxified rat. Res Pharm Sci 2006;2:80-4.

Powell JJ, Whitehead MW, Ainley CC, Kendall MD, Nicholson JK, Thompson RP. Dietary minerals in the gastrointestinal tract: Hydroxypolymerisation of aluminium is regulated by luminal mucins. J Inorg Biochem 1999;75:167-80.

Kausz AT, Antonsen JE, Hercz G, Pei Y, Weiss NS, Emerson S, et al. Screnning plasma aluminium levels in relation to aluminium bone disease among asymptomatic dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 1999;34:688-93.

Cremer JE, Johnston PV, Roots BI, Trevor AJ. Heterogeneity of brain fractions containing neuronal and glial cells. J Neurochem 1968;15:1361-70.

Vasishta RK, Gill KD. Distribution of aluminium in different brain regions and body organs of rat. Biol Trace Elem Res 1996;52:181-92.

Kandaiah J, Kies C. Aluminium concentrations in tissues of rats: Effect of soft drink packaging. Biometals 1994;7:57-60.

Fosbracy P, Wetherell JR, French MC. Neurotransmitter changes in guinea-pig brain regions following soman intoxication. J Neurochem 1990;54:72-9.

Hewitt CD, Savory J, Wills MR. Aspects of aluminium toxicity. Clin Lab Med 1990;10:403-22.

Vandanplas O, Delwiche JP, Vanbilsen ML, Joly J, Roosels D. Occupational asthma caused by aluminium welding. Eur Respir J 1998;11:1182-4.

Heyer NJ. Potroom palsy? Neurologic disorder in three aluminum smelter workers. Arch Intern Med 1985;145:1972-5.

Joshi JG. Aluminium, a neurotoxin which affects diverse metabolic reactions. Biofactors 1990;2:163-9.

Morley R, Bishop NJ, Day JP, Lucas A. Aluminium neurotoxicity in preterm infants receiving intravenous-feeding solutions. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1557-61.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.