Evaluation of Iron-induced Oxidative Stress and its Amelioration by Certain Herbs in Broilers


  • College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hyderabad, 500 030, India
  • College of Veterinary Science, Korutla, Andhra Pradesh, India


A total of 225 male broiler chicks (Cobb strain) of day-old age were randomly divided into 15 groups consisting of 15 chicks in each group. Group 1 was maintained as basal diet control and group 2 on ferrous sulfate at 0.5% in feed throughout 6 wk as iron toxic control without any treatment. Groups 3-15 were maintained on FeSO4 at 0.5% in feed for the 4 wk (28 days) of study and thereafter administered with different herbs and their combinations for the remaining 2 wk. The blood samples were drawn from wing vein at the end of 4th and 6th weeks from the birds in each group for the assay of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Sera samples were separated from the blood for the estimation of alanine transaminase (ALT) and serum creatinine. The birds were sacrificed at the end of 6th wk and tissues were collected for the assay of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver and kidney homogenates. The activities of SOD, catalase and ALT, and the concentration of TBARS and serum creatinine were increased significantly (P<0.05), while the concentration of tissue GSH was decreased significantly (P<0.05) in all the groups as compared to basal diet control and the values showed significant improvement in groups 3-15 that were treated during the last 2 weeks. It is concluded that iron induces toxicity by generating reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant herbs are useful in treating the iron-induced toxicity.


Broilers, herbs, iron, oxidative stress

Subject Discipline


Full Text:


Beard J. Iron deficiency alters brain development and functioning. J Nutrition 2003;133:14685-725.

Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM. Oxidative stress: Adaptation, damage, repair and death. In Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. 3rd ed. UK: Oxford University Press; 1999. p. 246-350.

Droge W. Oxidative stress and ageing. Adv Exp Med Biol 2003;543:191-200.

Farrukh A, Iqbal A, Zafar M. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of twelve traditionally used Indian medicinal plants. Turkish J Biol 2006;30:177-83.

Kamashi K, Reddy AG, Reddy KS, Reddy VR. Evaluation of zinc against salinomycin toxicity in broilers. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2004;48:89-95.

Marklund S, Marklund G. Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autooxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem 1974;47:469-74.

Caliborne AL. Assay of catalase. In: Greenwald RA, editor. Hand Book of Oxygen Radical Research. Baco-Raton, United states: CRC Press; 1985.

Moron MS, Depierre JW, Mannervik B. Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S transferase in rat lung and liver. Biochem Biophys Acta 1979;582:67-8.

Subramanian KA, Manohar M, Mathan VI. An unidentified inhibitor of lipid peroxidation in intestinal mucosa. Biochem Biophys Acta 1988;962:51-8.

Davis L, Girija K, Kuttan G. Effect of Withania somnifera on dimethyl benzathracane (DMBA) induced carcinogenesis. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;75:165-8.

Gupta MS, Shivaprasad HN, Kharya MD, Rana AC. Immunomodulatory activity of the ayurvedic formulation “Ashwagandha churna”. Pharmaceutical Biol 2006;44:263-5.

Nidhi S, Upendra N, Dwivedi P, Singh RK, Kumar A, Saxena DS, et al. Modulation of oxidative and antioxidative status in diabetes by Asphattum punjabinam. Diabetes Care 2003;26:2467-70.

Ray S, Roy K, Gupta S. In vitro evaluation antiperoxidative potential of water extract of Spirulina plantesis (blue green algae) on cyclophosphamide Induced lipid peroxidation. Indian J Pharmacol 2007;69:190-6.

Kaneko JJ, Harvey JW, Michael LB. Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 5th ed. New York: Academic press; 1997.

Gupta RS, Dharmendra S. Protective nature of Murraya koenigii leaves against hepatosuppression through antioxidants status in experimental rats. Pharmaacol on line 2007;1:232-42.


  • There are currently no refbacks.