Determination of Median Lethal Dose of Combination of Endosulfan and Cypermethrin in Wistar Rat


  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Departments of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, New Delhi, India
  • Vice chancellor Sri Guru Gobind Singh Tricentinary Medical College, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Departments of Pharmacology, New Delhi, India


The present study was designed to determine the lethal dose 50 (LD50) of combination of cypermethrin, a pyrethroid, and endosulfan, an organochlorine compound in Wistar rats. LD50 is the amount (dose) of a chemical, calculated as per the concentration of chemicals that produces death in 50% of a population of test animals to which it is administered by any of a variety of methods. A single oral dose of combination of cypermethrin and endosulfan were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in a ratio of 1:1 and administered orally at the concentration of 165 mg/kg body weight (b.w), 330 mg/kg b.w, 660 mg/kg b.w, and 1320 mg/kg b.w to experimental animals. LD50 was calculated according to the method described by Miller and Tainter (1994) and was observed as 691.83 mg/kg b.w for this combination. Single dose of test article at 165 mg/kg b.w did not reveal any toxic signs or behavioral alterations, hence considered as No observed Adverse Effect level (NOAEL).


Cypermethrin, endosulfan, LD50, no observed adverse effect level, organochlorine, pyrethroid

Full Text:


Anwar WA. Biomarkers of human exposure to pesticide. Environ Health Perspect 1997;105:801‑6.

Ahmad L, Khan A, Khan MZ, Hussain I. Cypermethrin induced anemia in male rabbits. Pakistan Vet J 2009;29:191.

Environmental Information System‑National Institute of Occupational Heal. News Letter 2007;2.

Grewal KK, Sandhu GS, Kaur RR, Brar RS, Sandhu HS. Toxic impact of cypermethrin on behavior and histology of certain tissues of albino rats. Toxicol Int 2010;17:94‑8.

Miller LC, Tainter ML. Estimation of LD50 and its error by means of log‑probit graph paper. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1944;57:261.

Bliss CI. The method of probits. Science 1934;79:38‑9.

Litchfield JT Jr, Wilcoxon F. A simplified method of evaluating dose‑effect experiments. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1949;96:99‑113.

Finney DJ. Probit Analysis. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1971.

Weil CS. Tables for convenient calculation of median effective dose (LD 50 or ED 50) and instructions in their use. Biometrics 1952;8:249.

Thompson WR. Use of moving averages and interpolation to estimate median effective 4 dose. Bacteriol Rev 1947;11:115.

Report of National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (2009). Available from: health/topics/agents//pesticide/index.cfm. [Last accessed on 24 oct 2011]

United States Environmental Protection Agency. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisoning (2009). Available from: handbook.htm. [Last accessed on 24 oct 2011]

World Health Organization. Issue Brief Series: Pesticides. (2009).Available from: http// pesticides.pdf. [Last accessed on 24 oct 2011]

Sekar BH, Uma Devi, Ch Susma, Venkateswara RJ, VijayaKumar TM, Thirumurugan G. Effect of polytrin C (combination pesticide) on the ach ease inhibition in plasma and brain of wistar rats. Am J Biochem Mol Biol 2011;1:101.

Nolan MP, Roberson EL. Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publication, Co.; 1979.p. 1107.

Ray DE. Pesticides derived from plants and organisms. In: Hayes WJ, Laws ER Jr, editors. Handbook of Pesticides Toxicology.New York: Academic Press; 1991. p. 2‑3.

Nagarjuna A, Doss JP. Acute oral toxicity and histopathological studies of cypermethrin in rats. Indian J Anim Res 2009;43:235.

U b o h F E , A s u q u o E N, E t e n g MU, A k p a ny u n g E O. Endosulfan‑induces renal toxicity independent of the route of exposure in rats. Am J Biochem Mol Biol 2011;1:359.

International Programme on Chemical Safety. The WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazards and Guidelines to Classification 1998‑1999. (WHO/PCS/98.21 Rev. 1 World Health Organisation, Geneva) 1998b.

Ghosh MN. Toxicity studies. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. Calcutta: Scientific Book Agency; 1984. p. 153.

Turner R. Quantal response. The determination of ED 50.Screening Methods in Pharmacology New York: Academic Press; 1965. p. 61.

Randhawa MA. Calculation of LD50 values from the method of Miller and Tainter, 1944. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2009;21:184‑5.

Finney DJ. Probit Analysis. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1952.

Ghosh MN. Statistical Analysis, Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. 2nd ed. Calcutta: Scientific Book Agency; 1984.p. 187.

Shafiq‑ur‑Rehman. Endosulfan toxicity and its reduction by selenium: A behavioral, hematological and peroxidative stress evaluation. Internet J Toxicol 2006;3.

Davis RP, Garthwaite DG, Thomas MR. Pesticide Usage Survey Report 85, Arable Farm Crops in England and Wales 1990.London: MAFE; 1991.

Davis RR, Thomas MR, Garthwaite DG, Bowen HM. Pesticide Usage Survey Report 108, Arable Farm Crops in Great Britain 1992. London: MAFE; 1993.

Manna S, Bhattacharya D, Basak DK, Mandal TK. Single oral dose toxicity study of α‑cypermethrin in rats. J Pharmacol 2004;36:25.

Smith AG. Chlorinated hydrocarbons insecticide. In: Hayes WJ Jr, Laws ER Jr, editors. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. New York: Academic Press Inc.; 1991. p. 63.

Thompson HM. Interactions between pesticides: A review of reported effects and their implications for wildlife risk assessment. Ecotoxicology 1996;5:59.


  • There are currently no refbacks.