Bisphenols as Human Health Hazard: A Systematic Review on Potent Sources, Route of Exposure, Harmful Effects and Safe Alternatives


  • Punjab Agricultural University, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ludhiana, Punjab, 141004, India
  • Lovely Professional University, Department of Food, Technology and Nutrition, Phagwara, Punjab, 144411, India


Bisphenols (BPs), a component of polycarbonates and laquer-coatings, are used for day to day household purposed, and frequent exposure has potential negative effects on each organ of the body, mostly evident by genetic changes and mitochondrial dysfunction. Children are at high risk due to higher accumulation per kg body weight explicit toxic effect. Present strategies are to downsize exposure by replacing polycarbonates with wood, glass, stainless steel or green substitutes like bisguaiacol-F, soy protein isolate etc. At present, biodegradation by bacteria and fungus would be a great help to fight environmental bisphenols. It is necessary to come up with strong and functionally equivalent alternative to bisphenols which can safeguard future generations from further harmful effects.


Bisphenols; Bisphenol A; Bisphenol B; Bisphenol S; Bisphenol Toxicity.

Subject Collection


Subject Discipline

Food; Health; Environment

Full Text:


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