Toxicological Investigation of Single Oral Dose Administration of Imidacloprid in Male Wistar Rats

Jump To References Section


  • ,IN
  • ,IN
  • ,IN
  • ,IN



Analgesic Activity, Imidacloprid, Motor Activity, Sleeping Time
Animal Science


The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute toxic effect of Imidacloprid (IM) on adult wistar rats. Rats were divided into four different groups. Animals from Group I and II were received water and corn oil, respectively, while, Group III and IV were received oral dose of IM @ 150mg/kg and 300mg/kg body weight, respectively. Thereafter, animals were subjected to series of neuro-toxicity related parameters (general behavioral changes, motor activity, pentobarbitone induced sleeping time and measurement of pain response through mechanical stimulation, radiant heat and tail clip method). IM administration in rats produced significant behavioral depression which resulted into decrease in alertness, awareness and grip strength, and there was reduction in the response to sound, touch and pinna reflexes as compared control. Further, IM resulted in significant decrease in spontaneous locomotor activity and forced locomotor activity (rota-rod performance). IM administration significantly increased the pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time without altering the onset of sleeping time. Orally administered IM did not produce any significant analgesic or hyperalgesic effect. The present study suggests that IM has pronounced CNS effect without effecting analgesic activity during acute toxicosis in animals.


Download data is not yet available.



How to Cite

Lonare, M. K., Kumar, M., More, A., & Telang, A. G. (2020). Toxicological Investigation of Single Oral Dose Administration of Imidacloprid in Male Wistar Rats. Toxicology International, 26(1&2), 8–14.
Received 2018-12-10
Accepted 2018-12-13
Published 2020-01-29



Meienfisch P, Brandl F, Kobel W, Rindlisbacher A, Senn R. Nicotinoid insecticides and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Springer, Tokyo; 1999. p. 177.

Ferrer I, Thurman EM, Fernández-Alba AR. Quantitation and accurate mass analysis of pesticides in vegetables by LC/TOF-MS. Analytical Chemistry. 2005; 77:2818–25. PMid:15859598

Nauen R, Ebbinghaus-Kintscher U, Schmuck R. Toxicity and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor interaction of imidacloprid and its metabolites in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Pest Management Science. 2001; 57:577–86. PMid:11464788

Muccio Di A, Fidente P, Barbini DA, Dommarco R, Seccia S, Morrica P. Application of solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to the determination of neonicotinoid pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables.Journal of Chromatography-A. 2006; 1108:1-6. PMid:16448655

Butcherine P, Benkendorff K, Kelaher B, Barkla BJ. The risk of neonicotinoid exposure to shrimp aquaculture.Chemosphere. 2018; 217:329–48. PMid:30419387.

Song MY, Brown JJ. Osmotic effects as a factor modifying insecticide toxicity on Aedes and Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 1998; 41:195–202. PMid:9756708

Hovda LR, Hooser SB. Toxicology of newer pesticides for use in dogs and cats. Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice. 2002; 32: 455–67.

Matsuda KM, Shimomura Y, Kondo M, Ihara K,Hashigami N, Yoshida V, et al. Role of loop D of the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in its interaction with the insecticide imidacloprid and related neonicotinoids.

British Journal of Pharmacology. 2000; 130:981–6. PMid:10882381.


Qadir S, Iqbal F. Effect of subleathal concentrtion of imidacloprid on the histology of heart, liver and kidney in Labeo rohitr. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016; 29(6):2033–8.

Burke AP, Niibori Y, Terayama H, Ito M, Pidgeon C, Arsenault J, et al. Mammalian susceptibility to a neonicotinoid insecticide after fetal and early postnatalexposure. Scientific Reports. 2018; 8(1):16639. https:// PMid:30413779.PMCid:PMC6226530

Guo J, Shi R, Cao Y, Luan Y, Zhou Y, Gao Y, et al. Genotoxic effects of imidacloprid in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 2018; 13:1–5.

Iturburu FG, Simoniello MF, Medici S, Panzeri AM, Menone ML. Imidacloprid causes DNA damage in fish: Clastogenesis as a mechanism of genotoxicity. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2018; 100(6):760–4.

Pike KS, Reed GL, Graf GT, Allison D. Compatibility of imidacloprid with fungicides as a seed-treatment control of Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphidae) and effect on germination, growth and Yield of Wheat Barley.Journal of Economic Entomology. 1993; 86:586–93.

Scholz K, Spiteller M. Influence of groundcover on the degradation of 14C-imidacloprid in soil. Proceeding of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference, UK, Germany; 1992.

Duzguner V, Erdogan S. Acute oxidant and inflammatory effects of imidacloprid on the mammalian central nervous system and liver in rats. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 2010; 97:13–18.

Vesile D, Suat E. Acute oxidant and inflammatory effects of imidacloprid on the mammalian central nervous system and liver in rats. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 2010; 97:13–18.

Lonare M, Kumar M, Raut S, Badgujar P, Doltade S, Telang A. Evaluation of imidacloprid-induced neurotoxicity in male rats: A protective effect of curcumin. Neurochemistry International. 2014; 78:122–9. PMid:25261201

Bhardwaj S, Srivastava MK, Kapoor U, Srivastava LP.A 90 days oral toxicity of imidacloprid in female rats: Morphological, biochemical and histopathological evaluations.Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2010; 48:1185–90. PMid:20146932

Najafi G, Razi M, Hoshyar A, Shahmohamadloo S, Feyzi S.The effect of chronic exposure with imidacloprid insecticide on fertility in mature male rats. International Journal of Fertility & Sterility. 2010; 4:9–16.

Lonare M, Kumar M, Raut S, More A, Doltade S, et al.Evaluation of ameliorative effect of curcumin on imidaclopridinduced male reproductive toxicity in wistar rats.Environmental Toxicology. 2016; 31(10):1250–63. https:// PMid:25758541

OECD. Organization for economic cooperation and development.OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals.Guideline 423, Acute Oral Toxicity-Acute Toxic Class Method, Adopted, March 22; 1996.

Dunham NW, Miya TS. A note on simple apparatus for detecting neurological deficit in rats and mice.

American Journal of Pharmacology. 1957; 46:208–9. PMid:13502156

Randall LO, Selitto JJ. A method for measurement of analgesic activity of inflammed tissue. Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. 1957; 3:409–19.

Takagi H, Inukai T, Nakam M. Modification of Haffiners method for testing analgesics. The Japanese Journal of Pharmacology. 1966; 16:287–95. jjp.16.287. PMid:5298309

Dandiya PC, Collumbine H. Studies on Acorus calamus (L.) some pharmacological action of the volatile oil. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 1956; 125:353–9.

Avery ML, Decker DG, Fischer DL. Cage and flight pen evaluation of avian repellancy and hazard associated with imidaclopridtreated rice seed. Crop Protection. 1994; 13:535–40.

Yeh IJ, Lin TJ, Hwang DY. Acute multiple organ failure with imidacloprid and alcohol ingestion. TheAmerican Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2010; 28:255. https : // PMid:20159407

Chemical Watch Fact Sheet. Beyond Pesticides 701 E Street SE #200 Washington, DC 2003; 202:543–5.

Tomizawa M, Casida JE. Minor structural changes in nicotinoid insecticides confer differential subtype selectivity for mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.British Journal of Pharmacology. 1999; 127:115–22. PMid:10369463.PMCid:PMC1566001

Tomizawa M, Casida JE. Desnitro-imidacloprid activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase cascade via the nicotinic receptor and intracellular calcium mobilization in N1E-115 cells. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2002; 184:180–6. PMid:12460746

Manna S, Bhattacharyya D, Mandal TK, Day S.Neuropharmacological effect of alfa-cypermethrin in rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2005; 37:18–20.

Tomizawa M, Cowan A, Casida JE. Analgesic and toxic effects of neonicotinoid insecticides in mice.

Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2001; 177:77–83. PMid:11708903

Tripathi HL, Martin BR, Aceto MD. Nicotine-induced antinociception in rats and mice: Correlation with nicotinebrain levels. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 1982; 221:91–6.