Dermal Exposure of Morinda Citrifolia Linn. Fruit Extract Coated Gold Nanoparticles: Effects on Haematological and Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats


  • College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Parbhani, Maharashtra, Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Parbhani, Maharashtra, Maharashtra, 431402, India
  • College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Parbhani, Maharashtra, 431402, India
  • Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences, University MAFSU,, Nagpur, Maharashtra, 440006, India


The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Morinda citrifolia fruit extract coated gold nanoparticles on subacute dermal toxicity in wistar rats. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were synthesized by biological reduction (green synthesis) of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4.3H2O) with Azadirachta Indica (Neem) 5% leaf extract1. The nanoparticles characterized and were confirmed by colour changes from pale yellow to ruby red. These nanoparticles were coated with Morinda citrifolia fruit extract (McFE)1. The toxicity was evaluated in 50 wistar rats of either sex and randomly assigned to five groups. One group was considered healthy, three groups received dermal application of the combination of 1 mg/kg GNPs with 150 mg/kg McFE (Low dose), 2 mg/kg GNPs with 300 mg/kg McFE (Medium dose) and 4 mg/kg GNPs with 600 mg/kg McFE (High dose) dermal application for 28 days. The last group was considered as satellite group which received 8 mg/ kg GNPs with 1200 mg/kg McFE and animals were observed for extra 14 days beyond trial period for post withdrawal effect. There were no abnormal behavioral signs and no any alteration observed on skin throughout the experimental period. Hematological parameters showed no significant variations as a sign of toxicity except hike in neutrophil count and compensatory increase in TEC count on 28th day of entire treatment period but not in a dose dependent manner. Similarly, serum biochemical values showed a hike in ALT and AST in McFE coated GNPs groups. However, hike in BUN values in the experiment was observed to be non-dose dependent and a significant increase in creatinine dose independently on 28th days was observed. There was non-significant increase in total protein on day 14 was observed in the experiment. There was no significant toxicity in entire dosage, from hematology aspect but slight immune stimulation seen up-to 14th day of experiment (neutrophil) in McFE coated GNPs doses with no relation to dose and coating. However, in serum biochemical value slight liver functions tests affected on 14th day but no specific dose related toxicity is observed in any of the treatment. There is increase BUN and creatinine level on 28th day but proper excretion by kidney filtration units. A chronic toxicity trial is appealed to understand the extent of dermal toxicity.


Morinda citrifolia, Sub-Acute Dermal Toxicity, Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

Subject Discipline

Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology and Veterinary Pathology

Full Text:


Behera AK, More PR, Sahu RK, Rajurkar SR. Antidiabetic effect of Morinda Citrifolia fruit extract coated gold nanoparticles on diabetic wistar rats. Journal of Interacademicia. 2015; 19(l):70–8.

Guo, Rui, et al. Does core size matter in the kinetics of ligand exchanges of monolayer-protected Au clusters?. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2005; 127(8):2752–7. PMid:15725033

Gupta, R K, et al. Induction of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by Morinda citrifolia (Noni) in human cervical cancer cells. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2013; 14(1):237–42. APJCP.2013.14.1.237. PMid:23534730

Sulaiman FA, et al. Oral exposure to silver/gold nanoparticles: status of rat lipid profile, serum metabolites and tissue morphology. Journal of Medical Sciences. 2015; 15(2):71.

Ghosh P, et al. Gold nanoparticles in delivery applications.Advanced drug delivery reviews. 2008; 60(11):1307–15. PMid:18555555

Bahadar H, et al. Toxicity of nanoparticles and an overview of current experimental models. Iranian Biomedical Journal. 20016; 20(1):1.

Tinkle S, et al. The National nanotechnology initative: Research and development leading to a revolution in technology and industry. Supplement to the President’s 2010 Budget; 2009.

Kannadasan M, Sharma VK, Yadav S. Nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in pharmaceutical sciences. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2015; 6(4):1578-15–85.

Nel A, et al. Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel.Science. 2006; 311(5761):622–7. science.1114397. PMid:16456071

Nelson SC. Morinda citrifolia (noni). Species profiles for Pacific Island forestry. Permanent Agricultural Resources, Holualoa, Hawaii, USA; 2006. p. 1–13.

Rivera A, et al. Antibacterial effect of Morinda citrifolia fruit juice against mycoplasmas. Annals of Biological Research.2011; 2(3):491–7.

McClatchey W. From polynesian healers to health food stores: Changing perspectives of Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae). Integrative Cancer Therapies. 2005;1(2):110–20. 2. PMid:14664736

Chan-Blanco Y, et al. The noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.): A review of agricultural research, nutritional and therapeutic properties. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2006; 19(6–7):645–54.

Ma De‐lu et al. Evaluation of the ergogenic potential of noni juice. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives. 2007; 21(11):1100–101. PMid:17604369

Wang M-Y et al. Antioxidant activity of noni juice in heavy smokers. Chemistry Central Journal. 2009; 3(1):13. PMid:19807926 PMCid:PMC2765950

Serafini M R et al. Morinda citrifolia Linn leaf extract possesses antioxidant activities and reduces nociceptive behavior and leukocyte migration. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2011; 14(10):1159–66. jmf.2010.0254. PMid:21548805

Allinson IB et al. Effect of herbal supplement on growth response and faecal egg counts of cockerels. Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research. 2013; 3(1):68–73.

Chemicals DOFO. OECD Guideline for testing of chemicals.The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: Paris, France; 2005. p. 1–13.

Osgood E E, Haskins HD. A new permanent standard for estimation of hemoglobin by the acid hematin method. J. Biol.Chem. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1923; 57:107.

Absher M. Hemocytometer counting. Tissue Culture.Academic Press. 1973. p. 395–7. B978-0-12-427150-0.50098-X

Shen PF, Patterson LT. A simplified Wright’s stain technique for routine avian blood smear staining. Poultry Science.1983; 62(5):923–4.

Saien J, Soleymani AR. Degradation and mineralization of Direct Blue 71 in a circulating upflow reactor by UV/ TiO2 process and employing a new method in kinetic study. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2007; 144(1– 2):506–512.

Ngo TT et al. Interference in determination of ammonia with the hypochlorite-alkaline phenol method of Berthelot.Analytical Chemistry. 1982; 54(1):46–9.

Gerard SK, Khayam-Bashi H. Characterization of creatinine error in ketotic patients: A prospective comparison of alkaline picrate methods with an enzymatic method.American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1985; 84(5):659– 64. PMid:4061391

Hiller A, Grief RL, Beckman WW. Determination of protein in urine by the biuret method. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1948; 176(3):1421–9.

Panse VG, Sukhatme PV. Statistical methods of agricultural workers. ICAR Publ. New Delhi; 1967. p. 381.

Saminathan M et al. Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit juice on antioxidant, hematological and biochemical parameters in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)induced mammary carcinogenesis in sprague-dawley rats.International Journal of Pharmacology. 2014; 10(2):109– 19.

Sithambaram S, Othman HH. Acute and sub-acute dermal toxicity studies of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit extract in sprague dawley rats. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2015; 8:400–8.


  • There are currently no refbacks.