Effect of Chlorpyrifos on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Lipid Peroxidation in Liver and Gills of Zebrafish


  • Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Department of Zoology, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, 515003, India


Chlorpyrifos (CP) is a widely used and studied organophosphorous pesticide for more than a decade to control pests in agriculture, including termites, mosquitoes, flies and other household pests. Because of the extensive use of CP, besides destroying the target pests also affecting the non-target organisms like human, fish and finally finding their way to the aquatic environment. Fish is not only a vital source of food for people but also an important component of ecosystem and is shown to be sensitive bioindicator of external factors, such as pollution. In the present investigative study zebrafish, (Danio rerio) an excellent model for toxicological studies was exposed to CP (200 μg/L) and the oxidative parameters like catalase (CAT), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Reductase (GR), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and Lipid Peroxidation (LPO) in liver and gill tissues of zebrafish were assessed. The antioxidant enzyme parameters were significantly decreased in the treated groups than in control with concomitant increase in detoxifying processes i.e., GST and LPO. The results are discussed in detail.


Antioxidant, Chlorpyrifos, Lipid Peroxidation, Zebrafish

Full Text:


Hayes WJ, Laws ER. Organic phosphorus pesticides. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology 1991; 2:1065–7.

Albers JW, Berent S, Garabrant DH, Giordani B, Schweitzer SJ, Garrison RP, Richardson RJ. The effects of occupational exposure to Chlorpyrifos on the neurologic examination of central nervous system function: A prospective cohort study. J of Occu and Environ Med. 2004; 46:367–78. PMid: 15076655 . https://doi.org/10.1097/01.jom.0000121127.29733.5c

Rohitrattana J, Siriwong W, Tunsaringkarn T, Panuwet P, Ryan PB, Barr DB, Robson MG, Fiedler N. Organophosphate pesticide exposure in school-aged children living in rice and aquacultural farming regions of Thailand. J of Agromedicine. 2014; 19(4):406–16. PMid: 25275406 PMCid: PMC4446969. https://doi.org/10.1080/1059924X.2014.947457

Chlorpyrifos exposure and human health. Panel report.Indianapolis: Dow Elanco; 1997.

Kokushi E, Uno S, Pal S, Koyama J. Effects of Chlorpyrifos on the metabolome of the freshwater carp, Cyprinus carpio.J of Environ Tox. 2015; 30:253–60. PMid: 23997021.https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.21903

Xing H, Li S, Wang Z, Gao X, Xu S, Wang X. Histopathological changes and antioxidant response in brain and kidney of common carp exposed to atrazine and Chlorpyrifos. Chemosphere. 2012; 88(4):377–83. PMid: 22436588. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.02.049

Kavitha P, Venkateswara Rao J. Toxic effects of Chlorpyrifos on antioxidant enzymes and target enzyme acetylcholinesterase interaction in mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis. Environ Toxicol and Pharmacol. 2008; 26:192–8. PMid: 21783910. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2008.03.010

Ali D, Nagpure NS, Kumar S, Kumar R, Kushwaha B, Lakra WS. Assessment of genotoxic and mutagenic effects of Chlorpyrifos in fresh water fish C. punctatus (Bloch) using micronuleus assay and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis.Food and Chem Toxol. 2009; 47:650–6. PMid: 19141310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2008.12.021

Tilton FA, Tilton SC, Bammler TK, Beyer RP, Stapleton PL, Scholz NL, Gallagher EP. Transcriptional impact of organophosphate and metal mixtures on olfaction: Copper dominates the Chlorpyrifos-induced response in adult zebrafish. Aqua Toxicol. 2011; 102:205–15. PMid: 21356183 PMCid: PMC3991301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.01.012

Manjunatha B, Philip GH. Histopathological alterations in liver anatomy after exposure to Chlorpyrifos in zebrafish (D. rerio). Der Pharmacia Lettre. 2015; 7(7):191–7.

Gomez CC, Prats E, Pina B, Tauler R. Assessment of Chlorpyrifos toxic effects in zebrafish (D. rerio) metabolism.Environ Pollu. 2017; 220:1231–43. PMid: 27839997. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.11.010

Reshma KS, Philip GH. Antioxidant enzymatic activities and lipid peroxidation in liver and ovary of zebrafish (D. rerio) exposed to deltamethrin. Chemistry and Ecology.2017; 33(8):739–49. https://doi.org/10.1080/02757540.2017 .1359263

Sinha AK. Colometric assay of catalase. Analytical Biochemistry.1972; 47:389–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/ 0003-2697(72)90132-7

Misra HP, Fridovich I. The role of superoxide anion in the autoxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase. J of Biol Chem. 1972; 247:3170–5.

Rotruck JT, Pope AL, Ganther HE. Selenium: Biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science.1973; 179(4073):588–90. PMid: 4686466. https://doi.org/ 10.1126/science.179.4073.588

David M, Richard JS. Glutathione reductase. Methods of Enzy Anal.1983; 3:258.

Habig WH, Pabst MJ, Jakoby WB. Glutathione S-transferase.The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J of Biol Chem. 1974; 249(22):7130–9.

Ohkaawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem. 1979; 95(2):351–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003 -2697(79)90738-3

Fang L, Miller YI. Emerging applications of zebrafish as a model organism to study oxidative mechanisms and their role in inflammation and vascular accumulation of oxidized lipids. Free Rad Biol and Med. 2012; 53(7):1411–20. PMid: 22906686 PMCid: PMC3448821. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.08.004

Massarsky A, Jordan S, Kozal T, Richard TD. Glutathione and zebrafish: Old assays to address a current issue. Chemosphere.2017; 168:707–15. PMid: 27836271 PMCid: PMC5182135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.11.004

Sies H, Berndt C, Jones DP. Oxidative stress. Ann Rev of Biochem. 2017; 86:715–48. PMid: 28441057. https://doi .org/10.1146/annurev-biochem-061516-045037

Laszlo A, Matkovics B, Varges SZI. Changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity of humanred blood cells after myocardial infarction. Int J of Clin Chem and Diag Lab Med. 1991; 203:413–5. https://doi .org/10.1016/0009-8981(91)90319-8

Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC. Free radicals in biology and medicine. Oxford: Clarendon Press; 2011.

Zhang JF, Shen H, Wang XR. Effects of chronic exposure of 2,4-dichlorophenol on the antioxidant system in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus. Chemosphere. 2004; 55(2):167–74. PMid: 14761689. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.chemosphere.2003.10.048

Li ZH, Zlabek V, Grabic R. Effects of exposure to sublethal propiconazole on the antioxidant defense system and Na+K+-ATPase activity in brain of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aqua Toxicol. 2010; 98(3):297–303. PMid: 20363517.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.02.017

Yonar ME, Sakin F. Ameliorative effect of lycopene on antioxidant status in Cyprinus carpio during pyrethroid deltamethrin exposure. Pest Biochem and Physiol. 2011; 99:226–31.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2010.12.008

Mandeep K, Rajinder J. Oxidative stress response in liver, kidney and gills of Ctenopharyngodon idellus (cuvier and valenciennes) exposed to Chlorpyrifos. MOJ Biology and Medicine. 2017; 1(4):103–12. https://doi.org/10.15406/ mojbm.2017.01.00021

Monteiro DA, Almeida JA, Rantin FT. Oxidative stress biomarkers in the freshwater characid fish, Brycon cephalus, exposed to organophosphorus insecticide Folisuper 600 (methyl parathion). Comp Biochem and Physiol. 2006; 143(2):141–9. PMid: 16546452. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.cbpc.2006.01.004

Smith GS, Walter GL, Walker RM. Haschek and Rousseaux’s Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology. California: Academic Press; 2013.

Kochhann D, Pavanato MA, Llesuy SF. Bioaccumulation and oxidative stress parameters in silver catfish (R. quelen) exposed to different thorium concentrations. Chemosphere. 2009; 77:384–91. PMid: 19665757. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.07.022

Yu SJ. The toxicology and biochemistry of insecticides.Florida: Taylor & Francis; 2011. https://doi.org/10.1201/ 9781420059762

Sharbidre AA, Vimal M, Priyanka P. Effect of methyl parathion and Chlorpyrifos on certain biomarkers in various tissues of guppy fish, Poecilia reticulate. Pest Biochem and Physiol. 2011; 10:132–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.pestbp.2011.09.002

Oruc EO. Oxidative stress, steroid hormone concentrations and acetylcholinesterase activity in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to Chlorpyrifos. Pest Biochem and Physiol. 2010; 96:160–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2009.11.005


  • There are currently no refbacks.