From Genotoxicity Induction to Recovery in Different Organs in Fish Channa punctatus after Sub Chronic Exposure to 4- Nonylphenol


Affiliations

  • DGCN COVAS, CSKHPKV, Department of Fisheries, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, 176062, India
  • GNDU, Department of Zoology, Amritsar, Punjab, 143005, India

Abstract

The present study has been undertaken to study the damage and recovery capabilities of different organs (liver, kidney and gill) of fish, Channa punctatus after sub chronic exposure to three sublethal concentrations of 4-nonylphenol and 30 days recovery period. To see genotoxic effect and appraise the recovery capabilities Micronucelated Cell (MNC), Binucleated Cells (BNC) and Aberrant Cell (AC) frequency by micronucleus assay and tail moment was evaluated by using the comet assay. The exposure was given for 90 days and the effect was seen after 30, 60 and 90 days of exposure. Three sublethal concentrations were decided after calculating the safe application rate. Exposure results in increased frequency of MNC, BNC and AC in all the tissues. Gill tissue was found to be more sensitive to 4-nonylphenol exposure. The effects show that 4-NP can cause water quality deterioration, resulting in deleterious effect on the health of fish. After 90 days exposure, 30 days recovery was also observed and significant reduction in the values of both the parameters was observed showing a great capacity of C. punctatus to restore its DNA integrity.

Keywords

Comet Assay, Genotoxicity, Micronucleus Assay, 4-Nonylphenol

Full Text:

References

Naggar YI, Khalil MS, Ghorab MA. Environmental pollution by heavy metals in the aquatic ecosystems of Egypt. Open J Toxicol. 2018; 3(1):1–9. https://doi.org/10.19080/OAJT.2018.03.555603

Wang B, Zhao S, Wang Y, Yu F. Analysis of six phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in surface water and sediment. Chromatographia. 2011; 74:297–306. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10337-011-2067-6

Obiakor MO, Nnabude PC, Ezeonyejiaku CD. Ecogenotoxicology: Micronucleus assay in fish erythrocytes as in situ aquatic pollution biomarker: A review. J Ani Sci Advances. 2012; 2:123–33.

Jadhav AM, Singare PU. Studies on water pollution due to toxic metals in Ulhas River flowing along the Dombivli City of Mumbai, India. Inter Letters Nat Sci. 2015; 38:66–76. https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILNS.38.66

Sharma M, Chadha P. 4-Nonylphenol induced DNA damage and repair in fish, Channa punctatus after subchronic exposure. Drug Chem Toxicity. 2016; 40(3):320–5. PMid: 27580929. https://doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2016.1223096

Limbu SM, Zhou L, Sun SX, Zhang ML, Du ZY. Chronic exposure to low environmental concentrations and legal aquaculture doses of antibiotics cause systemic adverse effects in Nile tilapia and provoke differential human health risk. Environ Int. 2018; 115:205–19. PMid: 29604537. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.03.034

Hussain B, Sultana T, Sultana , Masoud MS, Ahmed Z, Mahboob S. Fish eco-genotoxicology: Comet and micronucleus assay in fish erythrocytes as in situ biomarker of freshwater pollution. Saudi J Bio Sci. 2018; 25:393–8. PMid: 29472797 PMCid: PMC5816008 https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.11.048

Sharma M, Chadha P. Widely used non-inonic surfactant 4-nonylphenol: showing genotoxic effects in various tissues of Channa punctatus, Environ Sci Poll Res. 2017; 24:11331–9. PMid: 28303538. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s11356-017-8759-1

Hedayati A. Liver as a target organ for eco-toxicological studies. J Coast Zone Manag 19: 2016; e118. https://doi.org/10.4172/2473-3350.1000e118

Sharma M, Chadha P, Sharma S. Acute and subchronic exposure of 4-nonylphenol to freshwater fish, Channa punctatus to evaluate its cytotoxicity. Biochem Cellular Arch. 2014; 14 (2):363–7.

Finney DJ. Probit Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1971. p. 333.

Basak PK, Konar SK. Estimation of safe concentration of insecticides, a new method tested on DDT and BHC. Inland Fish Society India.1977; 9:9–29.

APHA: Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 21 Ed. Washington, DC,USA: AWWA, APHA,WPCF; 2005.

Palhares D, Grisolia CK. Comparison between the micronucleus frequencies of kidney and gill erythrocytes in tilapia fish, following mitomycin C treatment. Gene Mole Bio. 2002; 25(3):281–4. https://doi.org/10.1590/S141547572002000300005

Singh N, McCoy MT, Tice RR. Schneider: A simple technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. Exp Cell Res. 1988; 175:184–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-4827(88)90265-0

Sunjog K, Kolarevic S, Heberger K, Gacic Z, KnezevicVukcevie J, Vukovi-Gacic B, Lenhardt M. Comparison of comet assay parameters for estimation of genotoxicity by sum of ranking differences. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013; 405:4879–85. PMid: 23525541. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s00216-013-6909-y

Faßbender C, Braunbeck T. Reproductive and genotoxic effects in zebrafish after chronic exposure to methyl methanesulfonate in a multigeneration study. Ecotoxicol. 2013; 22:825–37. PMid: 23483329. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-013-1057-x

Galindo TPS, Rosario IR, Silva EM. Micronucleus test in frillfin goby Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes, 1873) from tide pools of Salvador City, Brazil. Brazil J Aqua Sci Techno. 2014; 18(1):19–24. https://doi.org/10.14210/bjast.v18n1.p19-24

Sharma M, Chadha P. Induction of geno-toxicity after subchronic treatment with 4-nonylphenol in blood cells from gill and kidney and restoration of DNA integrity after recovery by Channa punctatus. J Ap Nat Sci. 2019; 11:478– 85. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v11i2.2099

Osman AGM. Genotoxicity tests and their contributions in aquatic environmental research. J Environ Protection. 2014; 5:1391–9. https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2014.514132

Muranli FDG, Guner U. Induction of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) following exposure to the pyrethroid insecticide lamda- cyhalothrin. Mutat Res. 2011; 726:104–8. PMid: 21620996. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2011.05.004

Serrano-García L, Montero-Montoya R. Micronuclei and chromatin buds are the result of related genotoxic events. Environ Mol Mutagenesis. 2001; 38(1):38–45. PMid: 11473386. https://doi.org/10.1002/em.1048

Ali T, Rafiq M, Mubarik MS, Zahoor K, Asad F, Yaqoob F, Ahmad S, Qamar S. Genotoxicity and repair capability of Mus musculus DNA following the oral exposure to Tramadol. Saudi J Biolo Sci. 2020; 27:12–7. PMid: 31889811 PMCid: PMC6933236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.03.008

Sharma M, Chadha P, Sharma P. DNA damage in spleen as a indicator of genotoxicity in Channa punctatus exposed to 4-nonylphenol. J Environ Biol. 2020; 41.

Bolognesi C, Perrone E, Roggieri P, Pampanin DM, Sciutto A. Assessment of micronuclei induction in peripheral erythrocytes of fish exposed to xenobiotics under controlled conditions. Aqua Toxicol. 2006; 78:S9–8. PMid: 16600396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.02.015

Ergene S, Cavas T, Celik A, Koleli N, Kaya F, Karahan A. Monitoring of nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of three fish species from the Goksu Delta (Turkey): Genotoxic damage in relation to water pollution. Ecotoxicol, 2007; 16:385–91. PMid: 17380383. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-007-0142-4

Mekkawy IA, Mahmouda UM, Sayeda AEH. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on blood cells of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Tissue Cell. 2011; 43:223–9. PMid: 21501852. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tice.2011.03.006

Osman A, Ali E, Hashem M, Mostafa M, Mekkawy I. Genotoxicity of two pathogenic strains of zoosporic fungi (Achlya klebsiana and Aphanomyces laevis) on erythrocytes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Ecotoxicol Environ Safety. 2010; 73:24–31. PMid: 19811832.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2009.08.021

Talapatra SN, Dasgupta S, Guha G, Auddy M, Mukhopadhyay A. Therapeutic efficacies of Coriandrum sativum aqueous extract against metronidazole-induced genotoxicity in Channa punctatus peripheral erythrocytes. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010; 48(12):3458–61. PMid: 20858524. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2010.09.021

Barsiene J, Andreikenaie L. Induction of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in blue mussels exposed to crude oil from the North Sea. Ekologija. 2007; 5:9–15.

Cavalcante M, Martinez R, Sofia S. Genotoxic effects of roundup on the fish Prochilodus lineatus’, Mutat Res. 2008; 655(1):41–6. PMid: 18638566. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2008.06.010

Rybakovas A, Barsiene J, Lang T. Environmental genotoxicity and cyto-toxicity in the offshore zones of the Baltic and the North Seas. Marine Environ Res, 2009; 68:246–56. PMid: 19616842. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2009.06.014

Osman AG, Abd-El-Reheema AM, Moustafa MA, Mahmoud UM, Abuel-Fadld KY, Kloas W. In situ evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the River Nile: I. Micronucleus and Nuclear Lesion Tests of Erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus niloticus 12. 2011.

Meier JR, Chang LW, Franson SE, Daniel FB, Toth GP, Lazorchak J, Wernsing PA. Assessment of genetic damage indicators in fish in laboratory, mesocosm and watershed studies. Society Environ Toxicol Chemistry. 2002; 18–22.

Cristaldi M, Ieradi LA, Udroiu I, Zilli R. Comparative evaluation of background micronucleus frequencies in domestic mammals. Mut Res. 2004; 559:1–9. PMid: 15066568. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2003.10.021

Zhou X, Yang Z, Luo Z, Li H, Chen G. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild freshwater fishes: Species, tissues, sizes and human health risks. Environ Pollution. 2019; 244:462–8 PMid: 30366293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.10.026

Ali D, Nagpure NS, Kumar S, Kumar R. Kushwaha B, Lakra WS. Assessment of genotoxic and mutagenic effects of chlorpyriphos in freshwater fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch) using micronucleus assay and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009; 47:650–6. PMid: 19141310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2008.12.021

Cavas T, Ergene-Gozukara S. Induction of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in Oreochromis niloticus following exposure to petroleum refinery and chromium processing plant effluents. Aqua Toxicol. 2005; 74(3):264–71. PMid: 16023743. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2005.06.001

Oliveira R, Domingues I, Grisolia CK, Soares AMVM. Effects of triclosan on zebrafish early-life stages and adults. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2009; 16:679–88. PMid: 19283420. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-009-0119-3

Ali D, Nagpure NS, Kumar S, Kumar R, Kushwaha B. Genotoxicity assessment of acute exposure of chlorpyriphos to freshwater fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch) using the micronucleus assay and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis. Chemosphere, 2008; 71:1823–31. PMid: 18359502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.02.007

Nwani CD, Lakra WS, Nagpure NS, Kumar R, Kushwaha B, Srivastava SK. Mutagenic and genotoxic effects of carbosulfan in freshwater fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch) using micronucleus assay and alkaline single-cell gel. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010; 48:202–8. PMid: 19818828. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.09.041

Figueroa ASS. Evaluation of oxidative stress and genetic damage caused by detergents in the zebrafish Danio rerio (Cyprinidae). Comp Biochem Physiol. 2013; 165(4):528–32. PMid: 23542746. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2013.03.026

Sayed AEH, Hamed HS. Induction of apoptosis and DNA damage by 4-nonylphenol in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and the antioxidant role of Cydonia oblonga. Ecotoxicol Environ Safe. 2017; 139:97–101. PMid: 28113117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.01.024

Sayed AEH, Kotb AM, Oda S, Kashiwada S, Mitani H. Protective effect of p53 knockout on 4-nonylphenolinduced nephrotoxicity in medaka (Oryzias latipes). Chemosphere. 2020; 236:124314. PMid: 31310970. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.07.045

Gong Y, Han XD. Nonylphenol-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in testicular Sertoli cells. Reprod Toxicol. 2006; 22(4):623–30. PMid: 16777376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2006.04.019

Baudou FG, Ossana NA, Castane PM, Mastrangelo MM, Nunez AAG Palacio MJ, Ferrari L. Use of integrated biomarker indexes for assessing the impact of receiving waters on a native neotropical teleost fish. Sci Total Environ. 2019; 650(2):1779–86. PMid: 30278422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.09.342

Yi G, Jiang W, Yufeng H, Sunan S, Xiaodong H. Nonylphenol induces apoptosis in rat testicular Sertoli cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress. Toxicol Lett. 2009; 186:84–95. PMid: 19429228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2009.01.010

Park SY, Choi J. Genotoxic effects of nonylphenol and bisphenol A Exposure in aquatic biomonitoring species: Freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna and Aquatic Midge, Chironomus riparius. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2009; 83:463–8. PMid: 19475328. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-009-9745-1

Bony S, Gillet C, Bouchez A. Margoum C, Devaux A. Genotoxic pressure of vineyard pesticides in fish: Field and mesocosm surveys. Aquatic Toxicol. 2008; 89:197–203. PMid: 18703238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2008.06.017

Pandrangi R, Petras M, Ralph S, Vrzoc M. Alkaline single cell gel (Comet) assay and genotoxicity monitoring using bullheads and carp. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1995; 26:345–56. PMid: 8575424. https://doi.org/10.1002/em.2850260411

Devaux A, Flammarion P, Bernardon V, Garric J, Monod G. Monitoring of the chemical pollution of the River Rhône through the measurement of DNA damage and cytochrome P4501A induction in chub (Leuciscus cephalus). Mar Environ Res. 1998; 46:257–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-1136(97)00105-0

Guilherme S, Santos MA, Gaivao I, Pacheco M. Are DNAdamaging effects induced by herbicide formulations (Roundup and Garlon) in fish transient and reversible upon cessation of exposure? Aqua Toxico.l 2014; 155:213–21. PMid: 25058560. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2014.06.007

Marques A, Guilherme S, Gaivao I, Santo MA, Pacheco M. Progression of DNA damage induced by a glyphosate-based herbicide in fish (Anguilla anguilla) upon exposure and post exposure period. Insight into the mechanism of genotoxicity and DNA repair’. Comaprative Biochem Physiol part C: Toxicol Pharmacol. 2014; 166:126–33. PMid: 25110831. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2014.07.009


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.