From Genotoxicity Induction to Recovery in Different Organs in Fish Channa punctatus after Sub Chronic Exposure to 4- Nonylphenol


  • DGCN COVAS, CSKHPKV, Department of Fisheries, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, 176062, India
  • GNDU, Department of Zoology, Amritsar, Punjab, 143005, India


The present study has been undertaken to study the damage and recovery capabilities of different organs (liver, kidney and gill) of fish, Channa punctatus after sub chronic exposure to three sublethal concentrations of 4-nonylphenol and 30 days recovery period. To see genotoxic effect and appraise the recovery capabilities Micronucelated Cell (MNC), Binucleated Cells (BNC) and Aberrant Cell (AC) frequency by micronucleus assay and tail moment was evaluated by using the comet assay. The exposure was given for 90 days and the effect was seen after 30, 60 and 90 days of exposure. Three sublethal concentrations were decided after calculating the safe application rate. Exposure results in increased frequency of MNC, BNC and AC in all the tissues. Gill tissue was found to be more sensitive to 4-nonylphenol exposure. The effects show that 4-NP can cause water quality deterioration, resulting in deleterious effect on the health of fish. After 90 days exposure, 30 days recovery was also observed and significant reduction in the values of both the parameters was observed showing a great capacity of C. punctatus to restore its DNA integrity.


Comet Assay, Genotoxicity, Micronucleus Assay, 4-Nonylphenol

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