Limnology and Rotifer Fauna of Khushalsar Lake, Kashmir


  • University of Kashmir, Department of Zoology, School of Biological Sciences, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, 190006, India


Kashmir traditionally known as heaven on earth for its beauty is gifted with water resources comprising rivers, lakes, streams and springs. Lakes provide a multitude of uses and are prime regions of human settlement and habitat. One such water body is Khushalsar Lake located in the downtown area of Srinagar city. It is noticed that Khushalsar at present has fallen victim to extensive encroachment, garbage dumping and the release of untreated sewage. Taking the pathetic condition of this lake and dynamic nature of water bodies in general into consideration this study was taken up to analyse the different physicochemical parameters and the rotifer abundance of this water body since rotifers are considered to be important indicators of trophic conditions of any aquatic habitat. The data collected was analysed using standard tools, statistical software’s SPSS (version 20) and PAST3. Nutrient content of this water body was found to be high and only sixteen species of Rotifera were observed. Statistically different physico-chemical parameters were compared at inlet, middle and outlet of the study lake. Only few parameters showed significant differences. Shannon-Wiener index of rotifer signifies the water body to be moderately diverse as the values lies below 5.00 while as values of Simpson diversity index indicate accelerated eutrophication.

Subject Collection

Kashmir, Khushalsar Lake, Lakes, Nutrient Content, Rotifera, Shannon-Wiener Index, Statistics

Subject Discipline

biological science; limnology

Full Text:


Mackereth FJ, Haron HJ, Talling JF. Water analysis. Freshwater Biol. Assoc. Sci. Publ. 1978; 36.

CSIR. Analytical Guide (Laboratory Techniques) CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa; 1974.

Goldman RC, Horn JA. Limnology. Mc Graw-Hill Book Co., New York; 1983.

Golterman Hl. Loading concentration models for phosphate in shallow lakes, Hydrobiologia, 1982; 91:169-174.,

APHA. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th edition, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, USA;1998. p. 1193.

Edmondson WT. Ward and Whipple's Freshwater biology, 2nd edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York; 1992. P. 1248.

Munawar MJ. Limnological studies on freshwater ponds of Hyderabad-India. Hydrobiologia. 1970; 36:105-128.

Bamforth S. Ecological studies on the planktonic Protozoa of a small artificial pond. Limnology of Oceanography, 1958; 3:398-412.

Tiwari Suchi, Dixit Savita, Gupta SK. An evaluation of various physico-chemical parameters in surface waters of Shahpur lake, Bhopal. Poll. Res. 2004; 23:829-832.

Sarwar SK, Irfan-UI-Majid. Abiotic features and diatom population of Wular lake, Kashmir, Ecol. Env.

and Cons. 1997; 3(3):121-12.

Rana BC, Spalria. Physiological and physico-chemical evaluation of the Ayad, Udaipur. Phykos. 1998; 27:211217.

Kaul V, Handoo JK. Water characteristics of some fresh water bodies of Kashmir. Current trends in life science. 1979; 9:221-246.

Nogrady T, Wallace RL, Snell TW. Rotifera-guides to the Identification of the Microinvertebrates of the Continental Waters of the World, 4 SPB Academic Publishing the Hague; 1993. p. 142.

Brandl Z. Freshwater copepods and rotifers: predators and their prey. Hydrobiologia. 2005; 546:475-489.,

Sharma BK. In: Faunal diversity of India. Eds. J. R. B. Alfred, A. K. Das and A. K. Sanyal, Zoological Survey of India, Environmental Centre. 1998; 22:57-70.

Koste A, Shiel RJ, Invertebr Taxon. The diversity of Indian Brachionidae (Rotifera: Eurotatoria: Monogononta) and their distribution. 1987; 7:9491021.

Inaotombi Shaikhom, Gupta Prem Kumar. Community structure of zooplankton across environmental variables in a high-altitude lake of central Himalayas. India Chemistry and Ecology. 2019. ISSN:0275-7540.

Segers H. Rotifera 2: The Lecanidae (Monogononta). In: Guidesto the Identification of the Microinvertebrates of the Continental Waters of the World 9. Eds. H.J.F. Dumont and T. Nogrady, SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands; 1995. p. 226.

Virro T, Haberman J, Haldna M, Blank K. Diversity and structure of the winter rotifer assemblage in a shallow eutrophic northern temperate Lake Võrtsjärv. Aquatic Ecology. 2009; 43:755-764I. s10452-009-9276-1.

Nova CC, Lopes VG, Souza LCE, Suzuki BK, Periera AA, Branco WC. The effect of seasonality on the structure of rotifers in a black water shallow lake in Central Amazonia. Annals of the Brazillian Academy of Sciences.2014; 86(3):1359-1372., PMid:25119730.

Berzins B, Pejler B. Rotifer Occurrence in relation to pH, Hydrobiol. 1987; 147:107-116.

Ticku Anjana, and Zutshi DP. The distribution and abundance of epiphytic rotifer populations on submerged macrophytes in Dal lake, Srinagar. Journal of Indian Institute of Science. 2013; 73(3):237.

Malik Monisa, Balkhi, MH, Abubakr Adnan, Bhat BA. Qualitative and quantitative studies of Rotifera as indices of water quality in Dal lake. Kashmir. Eco. Env. and Cons. 2016; 22(4):379-385.

Segers H. A biogeographical analysis of rotifers of the genus Trichocerca Lamarck, 1801 with notes on taxonomy. Hydrobiologia. 2003; 500:103-114. https://

Pejler B, Berzins B. On the ecology of Trichocercidae (Rotifera). Hydrobiologia. 1993; 263:55-59.

Recent updates of Lakes and Waterways development authority, Jammu and Kashmir; 2018.

Parveen M. Ecological Studies of Zooplankton of Dal Lake,Kashmir.Ph.D Thesis. Univ.of Kashmir; 1988.

Pennak RW. Freshwater Invertebrates of United States of America. Wiley Interscience Pub.,N.Y.;1978.

Qadri MY, YousufAR.Influence of physic-chemical factors on the seasonality of Cladocera in Lake Manasbal.Geobios.1980; 7:273-276.


  • There are currently no refbacks.