Correlation Of Foot Dysfunctions And Body Mass Index In Pregnancy
Keywords:Foot Dysfunctions, Foot Function Index, Overweight, Pregnancy, Visual Analogue Scale
AbstractBackground: As women gets pregnant, many changes take place in her body like physiological changes, hormonal changes leading to increase in joint laxity, experiences increase in weight gain which leads to many of the musculoskeletal disorders. Pregnant women experience many musculoskeletal problems which are common like lower back pain, leg pain, foot pain etc. Among all of the musculoskeletal dysfunctions, foot of pregnant women has many problems and which is not known to the people. As we all know that, various foot dysfunctions like calf muscle cramps, foot pain, swelling around ankles, heel pain on standing occur most commonly during second and third trimester of pregnancy. There is lack of knowledge seen whether there is any correlation seen among foot dysfunctions and body mass index during the pregnancy. Purpose: This study was done to check whether these incidences of various foot dysfunctions with increase in the body mass index of the pregnant women are correlated. Aim: To identify the correlation of foot dysfunctions and increase in body mass index during pregnancy. Methods: In this study, 160 participants between 20-35 years were selected for this study. According to the inclusion criteria, women who were pregnant for the first time were included in this study whereas pregnant women with complications such as polyhydraminos, fibroid complicating pregnancy were excluded in this study. Participants were given written as well as verbal informed consent. They were divided into group of four according to World Health organization of the body mass index categories. Statistics: Pearson’s correlation of Instat software was used to calculate statistics. Results: According to the data, it could be seen that extremely strong relation seen between pain and obese women (p = 0.0008) whereas no significant relation was found in underweight (p = 0.1501) and normal (p = 0.1420) women. Also very significant correlation was found between disability and women who was obese (p = 0.0084) whereas, no relation was found in women who were underweight, normal and overweight (p = 0.3390, 0.1919, 0.1513). Women’s with normal body mass index found extremely significant relation (p = 0.0001) with activity limitation, whereas, significant relation with underweight, obese and overweight (p = 0.0413, 0.0010, 0.0114) pregnant women. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) also showed significant correlation with all of the pregnant women. And overall total score of Foot Function Index (FFI) found extremely significant relation with women who were overweight (p = <0.0001). Conclusions: This study concludes that there is strong correlation between the foot dysfunction and body mass index in pregnant women who are overweight. As the weight gain increases during pregnancy there is more incidence of foot dysfunctions and which affects the ability of the women to do the daily activities. By seeing this correlation, proper preventive plans must be executed.
Artal R, Lockwood CJ, Barss VA. Anatomical and physiological changes of pregnancy and exercise. 2010. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/anatomical-and-physiologicalchanges-of pregnancyand-exercise
Ritchie JR. Orthopaedic considerations during pregnancy.Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2003 June; 46(2):456–66. PMiD: 12808395. https://doi.org/10.1097/00003081-20030600000024
Moore K, Dumas GA, Reid JG. Postural changes associated with pregnancy and their relationship with low-back pain. Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon). 1990 Aug; 5(3):169–74. PMiD: 23916220. https://doi.org/10.1016/0268-0033(90)90020-7
Bullock-Saxton JE. Changes in posture associated with pregnancy and the early post-natal period measured in standing. Physiotherapy Theory Practice. 1991; 7(2):103–9. https://doi.org/10.3109/09593989109106960
Fast A, Weiss L, Ducommun EJ, Medina E, Butler JG. Low back pain in pregnancy. Abdominal muscles, sit-up performance and back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1990 Jan; 15(1):28–30. PMiD: 2139238. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199001000-00008
MacLennan AH, Nicolson R, Green RC. Serum relaxin in pregnancy. Lancet. 1986 Aug 02; 2(8501):241–3. PMiD: 2874276. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(86)92068-4
Anselmo DS, Love E, Tango DN, Robinson L. Musculoskeletal effects of pregnancy on the lower extremity - A literature review. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. 2017 Jan; 107(1):60–4. PMid: 28271938. http://dx.doi.org/10.7547/15-061.
Ochsenbein-Kolble N, Roos M, Gasser T, Zimmermann R. Cross-sectional study of weight gain and increase in body mass index throughout the pregnancy. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2007 Feb; 130(2):180–6. PMiD: 16698166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2006.03.024
Fabris SM, Valezi AC, de Souza SA, Faintuch J, Cecconello L, Junior MP. Computerized baropodometry in obese patients. Obesity Surgery. 2006 Dec; 16(12):1574–8. PMiD: 17217632.
Goldberg J, Besser MP,Selby-Silverstein L. Changes in foot function throughout pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2001; 97:39S. http:dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006250-200104001-00093
Karadag-Saygi E, Unlu-Ozakan F, Basqual A. Plantar pressure and foot pain in the last trimester of pregnancy. Foot and Ankle International. 2010 Feb; 31(2):153–7. PMiD: 20132753. http://doi.org/10.3113/FAI.2010.0153
Ramachandra P, Maiya A, Kamath A, Kumar P. Foot dysfunctions among women across various trimesters of pregnancy. World Confederation For Physical Therapy (WCPT) Congress.
; 101:e1252–3. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.physio.2015.03.1156
Foley S, Ding C, Cicuttini F, Jones G. Physical activity and knee structural change: A longitudinal study using MRI. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2007 March; 39(3):426–34. PMiD: 17473768. http://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31802d97c6
Butterworth PA, Landorf KB, Smith SE, Menz HB. The association between body mass index and musculoskeletal foot disorders: a systematic review. Obesity Reviews: An official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 2012 Jul; 13(7):630–42. PMiD: 22498495. http://doi.org/10.1111/ j.1467-789X.2012.00996.x
Jacob HA. Forces acting in the forefoot during normal gait an estimate. Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon). 2001 Nov; 16(9):783–92. PMiD: 11714556. http://doi.org/10.1016/s02680033(01)00070-5
Hills AP, Hennig EM, McDonald M, Bar-Or O. Plantar pressure differences between obese and non-obese adults; a biomechanical analysis. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Discorders. 2001 Nov; 25 (11):1674–9. PMiD: 11753590. http://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801785
Dorothy C, Cynthia F. The impact of pregnancy on foot health. Malta Journal of Health Sciences. 2014 April. http:dx.medra.org/10.14614/PRGFT.1.8
Shurooq NS, Taghreed SH. Prevalence of musculoskeletal dysfunctions among Iraqis pregnant women. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2019 May; 8(7):1400–8. http://doi.org/10.20959/wjpr20197-15033
Murray I, Hassall J. Change and adaptation in pregnancy. J.E. Marshall and M.D. Raynor (Eds.). Myles Textbook for Midwives. 16th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Pp.143–77. http://www.elsevier.com/books/myles-textbook-for-midwives/marshall/978-0-7020-5145-6
Tanamas SK, Wluka AE, Berry P, Menz HB, Strauss BJ, Davies-Tuck M, Proietto J, Dixon JB, Jones G, Cicuttini FM. Relationship between obesity and foot pain and its association with fat mass, fat distribution and muscle mass. Arthritis Care and Research (Hoboken). 2012 Feb; 64(2):262–8. PMiD: 21972207. http://doi.org/10.1002/acr.20663
Vullo VJ, Richardson JK, Hurvitz EA. Hip, Knee and foot pain during pregnancy and the postpartum period. The Journal of Family Practice. 1996 Jul; 43(1):63–8. PMiD: 8691182.
Ponnapula P, Boberg JS. Lower extremity changes experienced during pregnancy. The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery. 2010 Sep-Oct; 49(5):452–8. PMiD: 20797587. http://doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2010.06.018