Prospective Cross-Sectional Study of the Uses of Non-prescription Analgesics among Hail Residents


  • University of Hail, College of Pharmacy, Hail, Saudi Arabia
  • University of Hail, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Hail, Saudi Arabia
  • Omdurman Islamic University, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Khartoum, Sudan
  • University of Hail, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Hail, Saudi Arabia


The aim of this paper was to describe the general status of the use of non-prescription analgesics (NPA) among the residents of Hail city to ensure the safe use of non-prescription analgesics.  One hundred participants with different diseases were studied consecutively from January to March 2020. Data were collected with an online, semi-structured questionnaire; the obtained data were converted into statistical data using Microsoft Excel 2013. Most participants were taking a single, non-prescription analgesic (87.5%), while combination analgesic products were used by only 12.5% of participants. Using over-the-counter analgesics is common among residents of Hail, and most of those studied use these products in moderation and do not exceed the recommended dose. Acetaminophen is the most widely used product, but people also use NSAIDs and amphetamine-like products. The use of over-the-counter analgesics is common among residents of Hail, and most of the participants in this study use these products in moderation and do not exceed the recommended dose; therefore, exposure of patients to an increased risk of adverse effects of these products is out of the question, and this indicates that a large group of people in this region knows the risk of analgesics overuse. New studies are needed to help improve the approaches to the use of NPA drugs


Analgesics, Hail City, Non-Prescription Analgesics, Semi-Structured Questionnaire

Full Text:


OTC Analgesics Market Forecast, Trend Analysis & Competition Tracking: Global Market insights 2017 to 2022 [online]. Available at: otc-analgesics-market. Accessed: May 23, 2022.

Thomas SH, Shewakramani S. Prehospital trauma analgesia. The Journal of emergency medicine. 2008; 35(1): 47–57.

Moore RA, Wiffen PJ, Derry S, Maguire T, Roy YM, Tyrrell L. Nonâ€prescription (OTC) oral analgesics for acute painâ€an overview of Cochrane reviews. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2015; (11).

Heard KJ, Ries NL, Dart RC, Bogdan GM, Zallen RD, Daly F. Overuse of non-prescription analgesics by dental clinic patients. BMC Oral Health. 2008; 8(1): 1–5.

Hail, Saudi Arabia Metro Area Population 1950-2021 [online]. Available at: Accessed: May 24, 2022.

Iwoi DMW, Nde PF, Yuh E, Kwenti ET, Tshimwanga EK, Achiri DT, et al. Assessment of the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice with regard to care of people living with HIV/AIDS among nursing and midwifery students in Fako, Cameroon. World Journal of AIDS. 2017; 7(1): 1–15.

Acute vs. Chronic Pain [online]. Available at: https:// Accessed: May, 24, 2022.

Pentel, P. Toxicity of over-the-counter stimulants. Jama. 1984; 252(14): 1898–1903.

Hargreave M, Andersen TV, Nielsen A, Munk C, Liaw KL, & Kjaer SK. Factors associated with a continuous regular analgesic use—a populationâ€based study of more than 45 000 Danish women and men 18–45 years of age. Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety. 2010; 19(1): 65–74.

Felício AC, Bichuetti DB, Santos WACD, Godeiro Junior CDO, Marin LF, Carvalho DDS. Epidemiology of primary and secondary headaches in a Brazilian tertiary-care center. Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria. 2006; 64(1): 41–44.

Whiteside RM, Cunningham EE, Bonar F, Ehrlich P, Walton MA. Nonmedical prescription stimulant use among youth in the emergency department: prevalence, severity and correlates. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2015; 48: 21–7.

Almalak H, Alkhelb DA, Alsaleh HM, Khan TM, Hassali MAA, Aljadhey H. Students’ attitude toward use of over the counter medicines during exams in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2014; 22(2): 107–112.

Park HJ, Moon DE. Pharmacologic management of chronic pain. The Korean journal of pain. 2010; 23(2): 99.

Kasasbeh MAM, McCabe C, Payne S. Cancerâ€related pain management: A review of knowledge and attitudes of healthcare professionals. European journal of cancer care. 2017; 26(6): e12625.

What Causes Chronic Pain [online]. Available at: Accessed: May 25, 2022.

Lake CR. Manic psychosis after coffee and phenylpropanolamine. Biological psychiatry. 15 Aug 1991; 30(4): 401–4.

Golar SK. Use and understanding of analgesics (painkillers) by Aston university students. Bioscience Horizons. 2011; 4(1): 71–78.

Gauvin DV, Moore KR, Youngblood BD, Holloway FA. The discriminative stimulus properties of legal, over-the counter stimulants administered singly and in binary and ternary combinations. Psychopharmacology. 1993; 110(3): 309–319.

Preshaw PM, Meechan JG, Dodd MD. Self-medication for the control of dental pain: what are our patients taking? Dental update. 1994; 21(7): 299–301. PMID: 7875365.

Golar SK. Use and understanding of analgesics (painkillers) by Aston university students. Bioscience Horizons. 2011; 4(1): 71–78.

Fernandes MTP, Hernandes FB, de Almeida TN, Sobottka VP, Poli-Frederico RC, Fernandes KBP In: Cecilia M, editor. Pain Relief: From Analgesics to Alternative Therapies. 1st ed. Croatia: c2017. p. 47–62.


  • There are currently no refbacks.