Systemic Delivery of Diclofenac Sodium after Topical Application of Gels Incorporated with Drug-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN)


  • Vaagdevi College of Pharmacy, Warangal, 506009, India


The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate gels incorporating solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of diclofenac sodium for systemic delivery of the active after topical application. SLNs were prepared using hot homogenization followed by sonication technique and these were incorporated into freshly prepared carbopol gel. Three different gel formulations (DSL1, DSL2 and DSL3) were prepared and characterized for particle size, charge, viscosity, morphology, and drug-lipid compatibility. The gels were evaluated for in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation studies and in vivo absorption. The gels enriched with SLN sustained the drug release for 24 h both in vitro and in vivo. The results suggest enhancement in systemic delivery of diclofenac sodium with gels incorporating SLNs.


Solid Lipid Nanoparticles, Diclofenac Sodium, Systemic Delivery, Topical Gels, Anti - Inflammatory Activity.

Subject Discipline

Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Full Text:


R.N. Brogden, R.C. Heel, G.E. Pakes, T.M. Speight, G.S. Avery. Diclofenac sodium: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy and uses in rheumatic diseases and pain states. Drugs, 1979, 18:241271.

M. Banning. Topical diclofenac: clinical effectiveness and current uses in osteoarthritis of knee and soft tissue injuries. Expert. Opin. Pharmacother., 2008, 9:2921-2929.

P.M. Lavand’homme, F. Roellants, H. Waterloos, M.F. Decock. Postoperative analgesic effects of continuous wound infiltration with diclofenac after elective cesaraen delivery. Anesthiology, 2007, 106:1220-1225.

T. Utsuki, N. Uchimura, M. Irikura, H. Moriuchi, H.W. Holloway, Q.S. Yu, E.L. Spangler, J. Mamczarz, D.K. Ingram, T. Irie, N.H. Greig. Preclinical investigation of the topical administration of phenserine: transdermal flux, cholinesterase inhibition and cognitive efficacy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther., 2007, 321:353-361.

J. Aukunuru, C. Bonepally, V. Guduri. Preparation, characterization and optimization of Ibuprofen ointment intended for topical and systemic delivery. Tropical J. Pharm. Sci., 2007, 6:855-860.

J. Kienzler, M. Gold, F. Nollevaux. Systemic bioavailability of topical diclofenac sodium gel 1% versus oral diclofenac sodium in healthy volunteers. J. Clinical Pharmacol., 2009, Oct 19.

S. A. Wissing, O. Kayserm, R. H. Muller. Solid lipid nanoparticles for parenteral drug delivery. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., 2004, 56: 1257–1272.

Kesavan Bhaskar, Jayaraman Anbu, Velayutham Ravichandiran, Vobalaboina Venkateswarlu and Yamsani Madhusudan Rao. Lipid nanoparticles for transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen: formulation, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies. Lipids in Health and Disease., 2009, BioMed Central; This article is available from:

V. Jenning, A. Gysler, M. Schafer-Kortiug. Vitamin A loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for topical use: drug release properties. J. Control. Rel., 2000, 66: 115–126.

S. A. Wissing, R. H. Muller. Solid lipid nanoparticles as carrier for sunscreens: in vitro release and in vivo skin penetration. J. Control. Rel., 2002, 81: 225–233.

R. H. Muller, M. Radtke, S. A. Wissing. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) in cosmetic and dermatological preparations. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., 2002, 54: S131–S155.

V. Jenning, A. Gysler, M. Schäfer-Korting, S. Gohla. Vitamin A-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for topical use: occlusive properties and drug targeting to the upper skin. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm., 2000, 49: 211–218.

S. A. Wissing, R. H. Müller. The influence of solid lipid nanoparticles on skin hydration and viscoelasticity—in vivo study. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm., 2003, 56: 67–72.

G. Cevc. Lipid vesicles and other colloids as drug carriers on the skin. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., 2004, 56: 675–711.

M. Schäfer-Korting, W. Mehnert, H. Korting. Lipid nanoparticles for improved topical application of drugs for skin diseases. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., 2007, 59: 427–443.

Z. Mei, H. Chen, T. Wang, Y. Yang, X. Yang. Solid lipid nanoparticle and microemulsion for topical delivery of triptolide. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm., 2003, 56: 189–196.

Lippacher, R.H. Muller, K. Mader. Preparation of semisolid drug carriers for topical application based on solid lipid nanoparticles. Int. J. Pharm., 2001, 214: 9–12.

Wei Liu, Meiling Hu,Wenshuang Liu, Chengbin Xue, Huibi Xu, XiangLiang Yang. Investigation of the carbopol gel of solid lipid nanoparticles for the transdermal iontophoretic delivery of triamcinolone acetonide acetate. Int J Pharm., 2008., 364: 135–141.

M. V. L. Bentley, J. M. Marchetti, N. Ricardo. Influence of lecithin on some physical chemical properties of poloxamer gels: rheological, microscopic and in vitro permeation studies. Int. J. Pharma., 1999, 193: 49–55.

Venishetty Vinay Kumar, Durairaj Chandrasekar , Sistla Ramakrishna , Veerabrahma Kishan, Yamsani Madhusudan Rao, Prakash Vamanrao Diwan. Development and evaluation of nitrendipine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: Influence of wax and glyceride lipids on plasma pharmacokinetics. Int. J. Pharma., 2007, 335: 167–175.

Anthony A. Attama, Stephan Reichl, Christel C. M¨uller-Goymann. Diclofenac sodium delivery to the eye: In vitro evaluation of novel solid lipid nanoparticle formulation using human cornea construct. Int. J. Pharma., 2008., 355: 307–313.

G. R. M. Perez. Anti-inflammatory activity of Ambrosia artemisiaefolia and Rheo spathacea. Phytomed., 1996, 3(2): 163-167.

RS. Langer, A. Peppas. Present and future applications of biomaterials in controlled drug delivery systems. Biomaterials., 1981, 2: 201-214.


  • There are currently no refbacks.