Compatibility of Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis indica with insecticides registered against Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)


Affiliations

  • Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, 208024, India
  • National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, Bengaluru, Karnataka, 560024, India
  • Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, 221305, India

Abstract

The gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is considered as a key pest of pigeonpea and is also a major polyphagous pest of several agricultural and horticultural crops in India. Combining chemical insecticides with Entomopathogenic Nematodes (EPNs) could be an effective alternative to reduce the use of harmful chemicals. Experiments were conducted to determine the compatibility of Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis indica with registered insecticides used for H. armigera control in pigeon pea, under laboratory conditions. Compatibility of the insecticides with EPNs was evaluated by observing infective juveniles (IJs) survival and virulence of Galleria mellonella at 24 and 48 h after dipping in insecticide solutions. It was observed that, insecticides showed moderate effect on IJs survival. IJs were able to infect G. mellonella larvae after exposure to these chemicals, but their progeny production was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced. Both nematode species showed differential sensitivity to the tested insecticides, with H. indica exhibiting better tolerance than S. carpocapsae. The studies revealed that the chemicals showed a strong sub lethal effect on the nematode reproductive potential, limiting seriously their possible recycling in the field.

Keywords

Compatibility, Galleria mellonella, Helicoverpa armigera, Heterorhabditis indica, Steinernema carpocapsae

Full Text:

References

Alves SB, Moino A, Almeida JEM. 1998. Produtos fitossanita rios e entomopato genos. In: Alves SB. (Ed.) Controle microbiano de insetos. FEALQ, Piracicaba. pp. 217–238.

Cabanillas HE, Poinar GO, Raulston JR. 1994. Steinernema riobravis (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) sp. from Texas. Fund Appl Nematol. 17: 123–131.

Dent D. 2000. Cultural and interference methods. In: Dent D. (Eds.). Insect Pest Management 2nd edition. CABI publishing, Cambridge, MA. Pp. 235–266. https:// doi.org/10.1079/9780851993409.0235 https://doi. org/10.1079/9780851993409.0000 PMid:10761764

Fitt GP. 1989. The ecology of Heliothis in relation to agro ecosystems. Annu Rev Entomol. 34: 17–52. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.34.010189.000313

Fetoh BES, Khaled AS, El-Nagar TFK. 2009. Combined effect of entomopathogenic nematodes and biopesticides to control the greasy cut worm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) in the strawberry fields. Egypt Acad J Bio Sci.2(1): 227–236.

Gowda CLL. 2005. Helicoverpa – The global problem. In: Sharma HC. (Ed.) Heliothis/Helicoverpa management: Emerging trends and Strategies for future research. Oxford and IBH Publishing, New Delhi. pp.1–7. PMid:15860376

Glazer I, Navon A. 1990. Activity and persistence of entomoparasitic nematodes tested against Heliothis armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J Econ Entomol. 83(5): 1795–1800. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/83.5.1795

Hussain MA, Ahmad R, Ahmad W. 2014. Evaluation of Steinernema masoodi (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) against soil dwelling life stage of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in laboratory and micro plot study. Can J Plant Prot. 2(1): 4–8.

ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics). 1992. The Mid Term Plan. International Crops Research Institute for the SemiArid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Kallia V, Sharma G, David I, Shapiro-Ilan DI, Ganguly S. 2014. Bio control potential of Steinernema thermophilum and its symbiont Xenorhabdus indica against Lepidopteran pests: virulence to egg and larval stages. J Nematol. 46(1): 18–26.

Kaya HK, Stock SP. 1997. Techniques in insect Nematology. In: Lacey LA. (Ed.) Manual of techniques in insect pathology. Academic Press, San Diego, California. pp. 281–324. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0124325555/50016-6

Koppenhofer AM, Grewal PS. 2005. Compatibility and interactions with agrochemicals and other bio control agents. In: Grewal PS, Ehlers R, Shapiro-Ilan DI. (Eds.). Nematodes as Biocontrol Agents. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK. pp. 363– 381. https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851990170.0363

Nabil El-Wakeil, Nawal Gaafar, Ahmed Sallam,Christa Volkmar. 2013. Side effects of insecticides on natural enemies and possibility of their integration in plant protection strategies. In: Trdan S (Ed.). Insecticides - development of safer and more effective technologies. Intech, Croatia. pp. 1–56. https://doi.org/10.5772/54199

Naser EK, Ali G, Hooshang RD, Davoud M, Samad A, Mansour O, Mohammad RM, Akbar S. 2012. A laboratory study of susceptibility of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) to three species of Entomopathogenic nematodes. Munis Ent Zool. 7(1): 372–379.

Negrisoli AS Jr, Barbosa CRC, Moino A Jr. 2008. Comparacao entre metodologias de avaliacao da compatibilidade de produtos fitossanita rios com nematoides entomopatogenicos (Nematoda: Rhabditida). Nematol Bras. 32(1): 65–75.

Negrisoli AS Jr, Garcia MS, Barbosa-Negrisoli CRC. 2010. Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) with registered insecticides for Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1979) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory conditions. Crop Prot. 29(6): 545–549. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. cropro.2009.12.012

Pawar CS, Bhatnagar VS, Jadhav DR. 1986. Heliothis species and their natural enemies, with their potential for biological control. Proc Indian Acad Sci. (Anim Sci). 95(6): 695–703. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03179484

Peters A, Poullot D. 2004. Side effects of surfactants and pesticides on Entomopathogenic nematodes assessed using advanced IOBC guidelines. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin. 27(6): 67–72.

Reed W, Pawar CS. 1982. Heliothis: a global problem. In: Reed W, Kumble V. (Eds.). Proceedings of the international workshop on Heliothis management. November 15-20, 1981, ICRISAT, Patancheru, India. pp. 9–14. PMid:6804661

Rovesti L, Deseo KV. 1990. Compatibility of pesticides with the Entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser and Steinernema feltiae Filipjev (Nematoda: Steinernematidae). Nematologica 36: 237–245. https://doi.org/10.1163/002925990X00202

Sharma HC. 2005. Heliothis/ Helicoverpa management: Emerging trends and strategies for future research. Oxford and Science publishers, USA. 469 pp.

SAS Institute: SAS version 9.3 System options. 2nd Edn. 2011. Cary, NC, USA, SAS Institute, USA.

Yan X, Moens M, Han R, Chen S, Clercq PD. 2012. Effects of selected insecticides on osmotically treated entomopathogenic nematodes. J Plant Dis Prot. 119(4): 152–158. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03356434

Zalucki MP, Dalglish G, Firempong S, Twine P. 1986. The biology and ecology of Heliothis armigera (Hübner) and Heliothis punctigera Wallengren (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australia: what do we know? Aust J Zool. 34(6): 779–814. https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO9860779

Zimmerman RJ, Cranshaw WS. 1990. Compatibility of three entomopathogenous nematodes (Rhabditida) in aqueous solutions of pesticides used in turf grass maintenance. J Econ Entomol. 83: 97–100. https://doi. org/10.1093/jee/83.1.97


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.