Antagonistic efficacy of Trichoderma isolates against soil-borne plant pathogens, Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani


  • College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Department of Plant Pathology, Thiruvanathapuarm, Kerala, 695522, India
  • Regional Agricultural Research Station, Kumarakom, Kottayam, Kerala, 686563, India
  • College of Agriculture, Padannakkad, Department of Plant Pathology, Kasaragod, Kerala, 671 314, India


Trichoderma spp. are long been recognized as efficient fungal biocontrol agents for the control of plant disease and for their ability to increase plant growth and development. Management of soil borne diseases has become very much important since it causes high crop yield losses. The present study was carried out to isolate Trichoderma spp. from soil samples collected from different locations of Kerala and to test their in vitro efficacy against soil borne pathogens viz., Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani. The Trichoderma spp. was isolated on Trichoderma Selective Medium (TSM) and observed that the isolates differed in radial growth and colony characters such as colony colour, texture and sporulation. In vitro studies revealed the potential of Trichoderma isolates against soil borne pathogens. Isolates TRPN3 and TRPN7 exhibited no sporulation and white mycelial colour. Isolates which completed their growth at four days after inoculation include TRKR1, TRPN3, TRPN7, TRPN10 and TRPN18. Biocontrol activities against different pathogens resulted in inhibition of pathogens. Maximum inhibition percentage was observed by the isolates TRPN7, TRPN15 and TRKR2 against both the pathogens. The maximum inhibition exhibited against both the pathogens is due to the antagonistic property displayed by the isolates.


Antagonistic activity, inhibition, soil borne pathogens, Trichoderma spp.

Full Text:


Aluko MO, Hering TF. 1970. The mechanisms associated with the antagonistic relationship between Corticium solani and Gliocladium virens. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 55(2):173–9.

Amin F, Razdan VK, Mohiddin FA, Bhat KA, Sheikh PA. 2010. Effect of volatile metabolites of Trichoderma species against seven fungal plant pathogens in-vitro. J Phytol. 2:34–7.

Bastakoti S, Belbase S, Manandhar S, Arjyal C. 2017. Trichoderma species as biocontrol agent against soil borne fungal pathogens. Nepal J Biotechnol. 5(1):39–45.

Bhat KA, Anwar A, Wani AH. 2009. Evaluation of biocontrol agents against Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and sheath blight disease of rice under temperate ecology. Plant Disease Res. 24(1):15–8.

Delgado-Jarana J, Pintor-Toro JA, Benítez T. 2000. Overproduction of ?-1, 6-glucanase in Trichoderma harzianum is controlled by extracellular acidic proteases and pH. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, Protein Struct. Mol. Enzymol. 1481(2):289–96.

Dennis C, Webster J. 1971. Antagonistic properties of speciesgroups of Trichoderma: I. Production of non-volatile antibiotics. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 57(1):25–39.

Devi YR, Sinha B. 2014. Cultural and anamorphic characterization of Trichoderma isolates isolated from rhizosphere of french bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) growing areas of manipur. The Bioscan 9(3):1217–20.

Elad Y, Chet I, Henis Y. 1981. A selective medium for improving quantitative isolation of Trichoderma spp. from soil. Phytoparasitica. 9(1):59–67.

Fatima K, Noureddine K, Henni JE, Mabrouk K. 2015. Antagonistic effect of Trichoderma harzianum against Phytophthora infestans in the North-west of Algeria. Int J Agron Agric Res. 6(4):44–53.

Garcia-Nunez HG, Romero-Gamez SDJ, Nava-Bernal EG, Campos ARM. 2012. Isolation of native strains of Trichoderma spp, from horticultural soils of then Valley of Toluca, for potential biocontrol of Sclerotinia. Trop. Subtrop. Agroecosystems. 15(2):357–65.

Gil SV, Pastor S, March GJ. 2009. Quantitative isolation of biocontrol agents Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp. and actinomycetes from soil with culture media. Microbiol. Res. 164(2):196–205. PMid: 17459686.

Gupta M, Dohroo NP, Gangta V, Shanmugam V. 2010. Effect of microbial inoculants on rhizome disease and growth parameters of ginger. Indian Phytopathol. 63(4):438–41.

Harman GE. 2006. Overview of mechanisms and uses of Trichoderma spp. Phytopathol. 96(2):90–194. PMid: 18943924.

Heydari A, Pessarakli M. 2010. A review on biological control of fungal plant pathogens using microbial antagonists. J Biol. Sci. 10(4):273–90.

Hima VM. 2017. Enhancing bio-efficacy of Trichoderma spp. for the management of soil borne fungal pathogens. [PhD. Thesis]. Thrissur: Kerala Agricultural University; p. 186.

Howell CR.1998. The role of antibiosis in biocontrol. Trichoderma and Gliocladium. 2:173–84.

Johnson LF, Curl EA. 1972. Methods for research on the ecology of soil-borne plant pathogens. Burgess Publishing Company: 426 So. Sixth St., Minneapolis, MN 55415:247.

Kamala T, Indira S. 2011. Evaluation of indigenous Trichoderma isolates from Manipur as biocontrol agent against Pythium aphanidermatum on common beans. J Biotech. 1(4):217–25. PMid: 22558540 PMCid: PMC3339598.

Khattabi N, Ezzahiri B, Louali L, Oihabi A. 2004. Antagonistic activity of Trichoderma isolates against Sclerotium rolfsii: Screening of efficient isolates from Morocco soils for biological control. Phytopathol.

Mediterr. 43(3):332–40.

Kredics L, Antal Z, Manczinger L, Szekeres A, Kevei F, Nagy E. 2003. Influence of environmental parameters on Trichoderma strains with biocontrol potential. Food Technol. Biotechnol. 41(1):37–42.

Kubicek CP, Herrera-Estrella A, Seidl-Seiboth V, Martinez DA, Druzhinina IS, Thon M, Zeilinger S, Casas-Flores S, Horwitz BA, Mukherjee PK, Mukherjee M. 2011. Comparative genome sequence analysis underscores mycoparasitism as the ancestral life style of Trichoderma. Genome Biol. 12(4):R40. PMid: 21501500 PMCid: PMC3218866.

Lunge AG, Patil AS. 2012. Characterization of efficient chitinolytic enzyme producing Trichoderma species: A tool for better antagonistic approach. Int J Sci Environ Technol. 1(5):377–85.

Manandhar S, Pant B, Manandhar C, Baidya S. 2019. In vitro evaluation of bio-control agents against soil borne plant pathogens. J Nepal Agric. Res. Counc. 5:68–72.

Mendoza JLH, Perez MIS, Prieto JMG, Velásquez JDQ, Olivares JGG, Langarica HRG. 2015. Antibiosis of Trichoderma spp strains native to northeastern Mexico against the pathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. Braz. J Microbiol. 46(4):1093–101. PMid: 26691467 PMCid: PMC4704620. https://doi.


Mishra VK. 2010. In vitro antagonism of Trichoderma species against Pythium aphanidermatum. J. Phytol. 2(9): 28-35.

Pan S, Das A. 2011. Control of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) root and collar rot (Rhizoctonia solani) with some organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum under field condition. J Plant Prot Sci. 3(2):20–5.

Patil A, Laddha A, Lunge A, Paikrao H, Mahure S. 2012. In vitro antagonistic properties of selected Trichoderma species against tomato root rot causing Pythium species. Int J Sci Environ Technol. 1(4):302–15.

Ridout CJ, Coley-Smith JR, Lynch JM. 1986. Enzyme activity and electrophoretic profile of extracellular protein induced in Trichoderma spp. by cell walls of Rhizoctonia solani. Microbiol. 132(8):2345–52.

Seema M, Devaki NS. 2012. In vitro evaluation of biological control agents against Rhizoctonia solani. J of Agric Technol. 8(1):233–40.

Sekhar YC, Ahammed SK, Prasad TNVKV, Devi RSJ. 2017. Identification of Trichoderma species based on

morphological characters isolated from rhizosphere of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L). Int J Sci Environ

Technol. 6:2056–63.

Shalini S, Kotasthane AS. 2007. Parasitism of Rhizoctonia solani by strains of Trichoderma spp. EJEAF Chem. 6:2272–81

Sharma KK, Singh US. 2014. Cultural and morphological characterization of rhizospheric isolates of fungal

antagonist Trichoderma. J Appl. Nat. Sci. 6(2):451–6.

Skidmore AM, Dickinson CH. 1976. Colony interactions and hyphal interference between Septoria nodorum and phylloplane fungi. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 66(1):57–64.

Vincent JM. 1927. Distortion of fungal hyphae in the presence of certain inhibitors. Nature. 59:850.

Weindling R. 1932. Trichoderma lignorum as a parasite of other soil fungi. Phytopathol. 22(8):837–45.


  • There are currently no refbacks.