Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction <div id="i-scholarabout"><img class="media-object" style="width: 222px; float: left; margin: 0px 16px 15px 20px;" src="" /> <p style="margin-left: 261px;"><strong>Editor :</strong> Dr. M. A. Akbarsha<br /><strong>Online ISSN :</strong> 2455-1244<br /><strong>Print ISSN :</strong> 0971-913X<br /><strong>Frequency :</strong> Quarterly<br /><strong>Publisher/s :</strong> Informatics Publishing Limited, Society for Reproductive Biology and Comparative Endocrinology</p> <p><!--<a style="color: red;" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Brochure-International conference on Reproductive biology,Comparative endocrinology &amp; Development</a><br />-->Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction (JER) is a Quarterly publication and is a single-blind peer reviewed journal. The aim of the journal is to disseminate high quality information related to basic and applied aspects of Endocrinology and Reproduction. <br /><span style="color: blue;">The Journal is Indexed in Index Copernicus, included in Web of Science Zoological Record and BIOSIS Previews, <br /><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Journal is Indexed in U. S. National Library of Medicine</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">UGC Mandate.</a></span> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Impact Factor of the Journal according to Citefactor for 2020-21 is 1.05.</a></p> </div> <p id="homecontent"><a href="" target="blank"><img src="" alt="" width="160" height="77" /></a><a href="" target="blank"><img src="" alt="" width="160" height="77" /></a><a href="#" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" /></a></p> Informatics Publishing Ltd. and Society for Reproductive Biology and Comparative Endocrinology en-US Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction 0971-913X Oral Administration of Root Extract of <i>Boerhaavia diffusa</i> Mitigates Diabetes-induced Kidney Damages in the Golden Hamster <i>Mesocricetus auratus</i> <p>Diabetes, a common metabolic disorder, is affecting people irrespective of age group and/or gender. The chronic hyperglycemia during diabetes leads to heart-, kidney-, eye- and nerve damages. <em>Boerhaavia diffusa</em>, commonly known as Punarnava, is one of the traditional medicines described in Ayurveda for the treatment of a number of diseases. <em>B. diffusa</em> has been reported to exhibit antidiabetic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and immunomodulatory properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic potential of ethanolic extract of root of <em>B. diffusa</em> and its effect on diabetes-induced kidney damage in hamster model. Treatment of ethanolic extract of<em> B. diffusa</em> resulted in significant reduction in the serum glucose level and increased insulin concentration with a simultaneous increment in the levels of muscle and liver glycogen. The oral supplementation of <em>B. diffusa</em> root extract improved lipid profile by reducing the cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and by increasing high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The activity of antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) in the kidney significantly improved following oral administration of <em>B. diffusa</em> while a significant decrease in Lipid Peroxidation (LPO) level was noted in the kidney after the treatment. Ethanolic root extract of <em>B. diffusa</em> decreased the level of serum creatinine, urea and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) significantly. <em>B. diffusa</em> administration demonstrated marked improvement in renal histology as evident by the regenerative changes in glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule. Thus, the use of ethanolic extract of <em>Boerhaavia diffusa</em> may prove therapeutically effective in prevention as well as inhibition of the progression of diabetes and associated kidney damages.</p> Sweta Arora Chandana Haldar Priyoneel Basu Jasmeet Singh Sameer Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 163 170 10.18311/jer/2022/30129 Effects of Sub-lethal Concentrations of Plasticizer - Diethyl Phthalate on a few Reproductive Indices of Female Freshwater Murrel, <i>Channa striatus</i> (Bloch) <p>Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is used as a plasticizer and arrives at the aquatic environment from different industries and can cause deleterious effects to fish. Great concern regarding the effects of these compounds in nature has evolved as a consequence to their endocrine-disrupting properties. Most of the studies on the endocrine-disrupting effects of chemicals in nature are based on their effects on the reproduction of fish and on changes in their genital structures. In the present study, the effect of exposure of female <em>Channa striatus</em> to DEP has been investigated. The treatment caused reduction in gonadosomatic index, ova diameter and fecundity. This may be due to the endocrine disrupting activity of this chemical. Histopathological examination of the ovary of DEP-exposed fish showed dose-dependent regressive changes as a result of estrogenic endocrine disruption. The present study strongly suggests that DEP induces endocrine disruption adversely affecting the reproductive potential of female <em>Channa striatus</em>.</p> Sini Mohan Gokul G. Nair Reshma Prabhakar Malini N. A. Roy George K Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 171 178 10.18311/jer/2022/29363 Occupational Hazard as a Risk Factor for Azoospermia among Infertile Men <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Exposure to environmental contaminants is a major risk factor for overall human health, including fertility. There has been increasing evidence of association of male infertility with occupational hazards such as heat, chemicals, and radiation. This study aimed to evaluate if certain job engagements and the environment have an impact on seminal characteristics of infertile men. <strong>Methods:</strong> 327 infertile men engaged in different occupations were divided into two groups: Group 1, who had a high likelihood of being exposed to occupational hazards; and Group 2, whose occupations had less or no hazardous working environment. Semen analysis was performed and the accessory gland function was also evaluated.<strong> Results:</strong> The farmers outnumbered those from other occupations (102/327). We observed a significantly higher incidence of azoospermia cases (16/39) among factory workers and a two-fold higher odds ratio in Group 1 (OR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.184, 0.41) compared to Group 2 (OR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.083, 0.239). Differences in semen parameters such as semen volume, pH, total sperm count, and sperm of normal morphology between the two groups were found to be statistically significant. Construction workers recorded the lowest semen volume and the highest seminal pH, while police personnel and factory workers had the least total sperm count and sperm with normal morphology. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study indicates an association of certain occupations with male infertility. Therefore, it is recommended to take precautionary measures to minimize exposure to workplace-related environmental hazards.</p> Puja Devi Nongthombam Suttur Malini Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 179 186 10.18311/jer/2022/29514 Cholesterolgenic Inhibition Causes Permanent Hair Follicle Damage by Activating Fibrosis Via the Angiotensin Receptor <p>Primary Cicatricial Alopecia (PCA) is a type of inflammatory hair loss disorder that resulted in the permanent damage of the pilosebaceous structure due to fibrosis. Various internal and environmental stimuli caused the breakdown of hair follicle cells. Cholesterol is a crucial component in the formation and differentiation of hair follicles and the overall health of the skin. The loss of hair follicle and aberrant cycles were caused by any inhibition or obstruction of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathways. This study suggests that cholesterologenic changes like precursor formation and inhibition in the hair follicle, trigger inflammation, fibrogenic signaling and leading to fibrosis. TGFβ-SMAD pathways related to the fibrogenic process were significantly expressed during the experimental condition. Angiotensin II receptor, AGTR1, showed a profound effect on the hair follicle cells. Real-time PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry of the patient’s scalp biopsies, HHFORS cells, and mice tissue sample revealed that the fibrotic genes were significantly activated after the treatment of BM15766, a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor, and 7- DHC, a sterol precursor. Our study confirmed that fibrosis is developed in the late stage of PCA by the dysregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis pathways in the hair follicle cells.</p> Shahul Hameed Najeeb Thankachan Mangalathettu Binumon Suresh Surya Leemon Nikhila Parameswara Panicker Sreejith Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 187 204 10.18311/jer/2022/30362 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): An Overview and Our Experience <p>Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is the most common reproductive endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovary morphology. The PCOS is known for more than 100 years; however, many areas of PCOS such as diagnosis, etiology, clinical features, and treatment are still debatable. This review aims to provide an overview of the historical evolution, diagnosis, biomarkers, and etiologic associations of PCOS as of today. A brief review of publications on PCOS and our research experience on PCOS are combined. All available biomarkers/associations implicated with PCOS, like androgens (testosterone, free androgen index, DHEAS, androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone), LH, 17-OH Progesterone, anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH), inhibin B, leptin, insulin, interleukins, advanced glycation end product (AGE), bisphenol A (BPA), kisspeptin, melatonin, etc., besides genetic and epigenetic factors, associated with PCOS are briefed, along-with our research experience. The most acceptable consensus in naming the syndrome is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and consensus diagnostic criteria presently followed are Rotterdam 2003 criteria with phenotypic classification (NIH 2012 criteria). Ideal androgen, method of estimation and its cut-off value is still a subject of controversy. DHT, an androgen, seems promising. The best available biomarker associated with PCOS could be AMH. Environmental contaminants such as bisphenol A and AGEs, and endogenous factors such as kisspeptin and melatonin have strong association with PCOS. Epigenetic alterations affecting various pathways (metabolic, steroid biosynthesis, ovarian function, AGE/RAGE, AMPK, inflammatory, etc.) and pathogenic variants of various genes (INSR, IRS1, GHRL, LDLR, MC4R, ADIPOQ, UCP1, UCP2, UCP3, FTO, PCSK9, FBN3, NEIL2, FDFT1, PCSK9, CYP11, CYP17, CYP21, HSD17, STAR, POR, AKR1C3, AMH, AMHR2, INHBA, AR, SHBG, LHR, FSHR, FSH β, SRD5A, GATA4, THADA, YAP1, ERBB2, DENND1A, FEM1B, FDFT1, NEIL2, TCF7L2, etc.) in some PCOS cases may be linked as underlying etiopathology. PCOS is a complex heterogeneous disorder, with genetic susceptibility besides environmental and epigenetic influences.</p> Ashutosh Halder Hemant Kumar Priyal Sharma Manish Jain Mona Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 127 152 10.18311/jer/2022/30241 Progestin as an Inhibitor of Premature Ovulation through LH Suppression in IVF <p>Progestin is a synthetic form of progesterone hormone. Progestin is used as a contraceptive pill. Progestin can suppress<br />endogenous Luteinizing Hormone (LH) secretion from the pituitary. Premature ovulation in Assisted Reproductive<br />Technology (ART)can be prevented by taking progestin. Progestin–Primed Ovarian Stimulation (PPOS) is now widely used<br />for the treatment of infertility through IVF. Progestin pills are more effective than GnRH analogue for patients. Progestins<br />are an excellent alternative to antagonists. PPOS is slightly more advantageous than the Controlled Ovarian Stimulation<br />(COS) protocol. Progesterone regulates follicular growth through PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathway.</p> Joydeep Das Banani Bindhani Sneha Maity Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 153 161 10.18311/jer/2022/30705 A Tribute to Professor Bassappa B. Kaliwal (1954-2021) <p>No Abstract.</p> M. Michael Aruldhas M.A. Akbarsha Laxmi S. Inamdar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 205 206