Sustainable growth of Indian coal industry: policy perspectives and recommendations


  • School of Petroleum Management, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Professor, Gandhi Nagar, Gujarat, India
  • Advisory, PwC India, Senior Associate, India
  • University of Rajasthan, Assistant Professor, Department of Law, India


Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel resource in India, and the country’s industrial and economic heritage has been built upon indigenous coal. India is the world’s 3rd largest energy consumer after China and USA. However, as the country goes through profound economic and societal transformations, such as economic and population growth, urbanization and industrialization, energy demand is expected to increase substantially. Looking into the significance of coal not only in the energy-mix but also in the economic development of India, the paper is aimed at an assessment of coal sector in India which shall also help contextualize the place of coal in India’s contemporary energy, industrial and social sectors amidst a range of developments – both national and international - related to coal sector. The authors looked into various aspects of Indian coal sector from a policy perspective and suggested subsequent course of action so the same can be used by Indian coal mining stakeholders towards the larger goal of sustainable growth of coal sector including coal mining. The analysis produced important policy recommendations for coal industry stakeholders including the Indian Government, who is the sovereign owner of coal mine acreage in India.


Coal; dry fuel; coal mining; coal regulations; sustainable growth; decarbonization; tndustry 4.0

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