Sustainable growth of Indian coal industry: policy perspectives and recommendations
Keywords:Coal, dry fuel, coal mining, coal regulations, sustainable growth, decarbonization, tndustry 4.0
AbstractCoal is the most abundant fossil fuel resource in India, and the country's industrial and economic heritage has been built upon indigenous coal. India is the world's 3rd largest energy consumer after China and USA. However, as the country goes through profound economic and societal transformations, such as economic and population growth, urbanization and industrialization, energy demand is expected to increase substantially. Looking into the significance of coal not only in the energy-mix but also in the economic development of India, the paper is aimed at an assessment of coal sector in India which shall also help contextualize the place of coal in India's contemporary energy, industrial and social sectors amidst a range of developments – both national and international - related to coal sector. The authors looked into various aspects of Indian coal sector from a policy perspective and suggested subsequent course of action so the same can be used by Indian coal mining stakeholders towards the larger goal of sustainable growth of coal sector including coal mining. The analysis produced important policy recommendations for coal industry stakeholders including the Indian Government, who is the sovereign owner of coal mine acreage in India.
Alasdair Monk (2018). How IIoT Is Changing Mining. Available on: https://www.industryweek.com/technologyand- iiot/article/22026902/how-iiot-is-changing-mining
Antwi, E.K., Owusu-Banahene, W., Boakye-Danquah, J. et al. (2017): Sustainability assessment of mine-affected communities in Ghana: towards ecosystems and livelihood restoration. Sustain Sci 12, 747–767. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s11625-017-0474-9
Benton, Dale (2019): Industry 4.0 and mining: keeping technology at the heart of the matter. Mining Global Magazine. September 2019. Available on: https:// www.miningglobal.com/digital-mining/industry-40-andmining- keeping-technology-heart-matter
Bertayeva, Kulyash and Panaedova, Galina and Natocheeva, Natalia and Kulagovskaya, Tat'yana and Belyanchikova, Tatiana. (2019). Industry 4.0 in the mining industry: global trends and innovative development. E3S Web of Conferences. 135. 04026. 10.1051/e3sconf/ 201913504026.
Bhatnagar, Molshree. (2014): Competition and Regulatory Issues in Coal Sector in India, CIRC Working Paper No.11. New Delhi: CUTS Institute for Regulation & Competition. Available on https://circ.in/working-paper-11/
Carl, J. (2015): The causes and implications of India's coal production shortfall. In M. Thurber & R. Morse (Eds.), The Global Coal Market: Supplying the Major Fuel for Emerging Economies (pp.123-163). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/ CBO9781316136058.004
Chattopadhyay S., Chattopadhyay D. (2020): Coal and Other Mining Operations: Role of Sustainability. In: Malhotra R. (eds) Fossil Energy. Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology Series. Springer, New York, NY. https:// doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9763-3_864
Dermot J. Roddy and Paul L. Younger (2010): Underground coal gasification with CCS: a pathway to decarbonising industry. Energy Environ. Sci., 2010, 3, 400-407
Dorota Burchart-Korol, Piotr Krawczyk Krystyna Czaplicka-Kolarz MarianTurek and Wojciech Borkowski (2014): Development of Sustainability Assessment Method of Coal Mines. Journal of Sustainable Mining. Volume 13, Issue 4, 2014, P.5-11
Dorota Palka and Tamer Rizaoglu. (2019): The concept of hard coal mine in the perspective of Industry 4.0.
MAPE 2019, volume 2, issue 1, pp. 327-335.
Evans, R. et al. (2003): Water Use and Sustainable Development in Coal Mining: A case study from Central Queensland. Sustainable Development Conference, MCA, Brisbane.
Frewer L J, Fischer A R H, Wentholt M T A, Marvin H J P, et al. ‘The use of Delphi methodology in agrifood policy development: Some lessons learned', Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 2011, vol.78, pg. (1514-25) 4, Pg.332-343, https://doi.org/10.1093/scipol/sct062
Huang, J., Tian, C., Xing, L., Bian, Z., & Miao, X. (2017): Green and Sustainable Mining: Underground Coal Mine Fully Mechanized Solid Dense Stowing-Mining Method. Sustainability, 9(8), 1418. doi:10.3390/su9081418
Hugh Durrant-Whyte, Ryan Geraghty, Ferran Pujol, and Richard Sellschop (2015): How digital innovation can improve mining productivity. McKinsey & Company. Available on: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/ metals-and-mining/our-insights/how-digital-innovationcan- improve-mining-productivity
IAEA-TECDOC-1244. (1998): Impact of new environmental and safety regulations on uranium exploration, mining, milling and management of its waste Proceedings of a Technical Committee meeting held in Vienna, 14–17 September 1998. As available on: https://wwwpub. iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/te_1244_prn.pdf
Ioan Batrancea, Larissa Batrancea, Anca Nichita, Lucian Gaban, Ema Masca, Ioan-Dan Morar, Gheorghe Fatacean and Andrei Moscviciov (2019): An econometric approach on production, costs and profit in Romanian coal mining enterprises, Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 32:1, 1019-1036, DOI: 10.1080/ 1331677X.2019.1595080
John P. Banks, Tim Boersma, and Charles K. Ebinger (2015). Does decarbonization mean de-coalification? Discussing carbon reduction policies. Brookings, USA. As available on: https://www.brookings.edu/articles/ does-decarbonization-mean-de-coalification-discussingcarbon- reduction-policies.
Katz, Rebecca & Gornto, Sarah & Chretien, Jean. (2011): Expert Opinion on Implementation Strategies for the International Health Regulations (2005). World Medical & Health Policy. 3. 10.2202/1948-4682.1178.
Kirk, Thomas and Jessie Lund (2018): Decarbonization Pathways for Mines: A Headlamp in the Darkness. Rocky Mountain Institute, 2018. https://info.rmi.org/ pathways_for_mines/. Available on: https://rmi.org/wpcontent/ uploads/2018/08/RMI_Decarbonization_ Pathways_for_Mines_2018.pdf
Konstantin Löffler, Karlo Hainsch, Thorsten Burandt, Pao-Yu Oei, and Christian von Hirschhausen (2017): Decarbonizing the Indian Energy System until 2050: An Application of the Open Source Energy Modeling System OSeMOSYS. IAEE Energy Forum. Singapore issue 2017.
Kulshreshtha, Mudit & Parikh, Jyoti. (2001): A study of productivity in the Indian coal sector. Energy Policy. 29. 701-713. 10.1016/S0301-4215(01)00003-9.
Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala. (2007): Coal mining industry at the crossroads: Towards a Coal policy for liberalising India. Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre, ASARC Working Papers.
Lahiry, Samar (2017): Can mining be sustainable? Down to Earth. 25th April 2017. Available on: https:// www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/mining/can-mining-besustainable 57683
Lindsay Delevingne, Will Glazener, Liesbet Grégoir, and Kimberly Henderson (2020): Climate risk and decarbonization: What every mining CEO needs to know? McKinsey & Company. Available on: https:// www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/sustainability/ our-insights/climate-risk-and-decarbonization-whatevery- mining-ceo-needs-to-know.
Mining Review Africa (2019): Industry 4.0 is electrifying the mining industry. Available on:https:// www.miningreview.com/health-and-safety/industry-4-0- is-electrifying-the-mining-industry/
O'Brien, John and Biggs, Tim (2020): Trend 5: The path to decarbonization: Miners' role in reducing emissions. Deloitte. As available on: https://www2.deloitte.com/us/ en/insights/industry/mining-and-metals/tracking-thetrends/ 2020/path-to-decarbonization-minings-role-inclimate- change.html
OCE-Office of the Chief Economist, Australian Government, Department of Industry, Innovation and Science; Report: Coal in India 2019; Available on: https:// www.industry.gov.au/sites/default/files/2019-08/coal-inindia- 2019-report.pdf
Paliwal, Pramod & Yadav, Sudhir .2019. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Business. CRC Press. ISBN: 978-1-136-59830-0
Pavloudakis, Francis and Roumpos, Christos and Evangelos, Karlopoulos and Koukouzas, Nikolaos and Sachanidis, Chariton and Spyridon, Pyrtses. (2019): Economic And Social Impact Assessment Of Decarbonisation In Ptolemais Lignite Mining Area.
Qian, M.-G. (2010): On sustainable coal mining in China. Meitan Xuebao/Journal of the China Coal Society. 35. 529-534.
Sarah Hilton (2019): Mining giant BHP goes digital in race for survival. Nikkei Asian Review. February 15, 2019. Available on: https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Companyin- focus/Mining-giant-BHP-goes-digital-in-race-forsurvival
Sean Carter (2017): Industry 4.0 in the mining sector. Available on: https://www.processonline.com.au/ content/industrial-networks-buses/article/industry-4-0- in-the-mining-sector-1259053519
Sharma, Ashish, A Study of Coal Mines in India (2012): Available on SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract= 2047437
Spencer, Thomas et al. (2018): "Coal Transition in India”, TERI Discussion Paper (New Delhi: The Energy and Resources Institute).
Tongia & Gross (2019): "Coal in India-Adjusting to transition” Brookings Institution, India. Available on https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/ 03/fp_20190731_coal_in_india.pdf
Tongia, Rahul (2020). Why India's push for private-sector coal mining won't raise carbon emissions. Brookings, India. Available on: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/ planetpolicy/2020/07/20/why-indias-push-for-privatesector- coal-mining-wont-raise-carbon-emissions.
UNDP and UN Environment (2018): Managing mining for sustainable development: A sourcebook. Bangkok: United Nations Development Programme
Upgupta S, Singh P. K. Impacts of Coal mining: a Review of Methods and Parameters Used in India. Curr World Environ 2017;12(1). DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/ CWE.12.1.17
Vrkljan, Darko and Klanfar, Mario and Tost, Michael and Endl, Andreas. (2017): MIN-GUIDE Version Innovative Exploration and Extraction Deliverable 3.4. Guidelines and recommendations for future policy and legislation Minerals Policy Guidance for Europe MIN-GUIDE -D 3.4. Guidelines and recommendations for future policy and legislation. 10.13140/RG.2.2.23128.65289.
Woods, Bryndis and Schlissel, David (2019): "Risks Growing for India's Coal Sector”, IEEFA (Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Planning) Available on https://ieefa.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Risks- Growing-for-India-Coal-Sector_September-2019.pdf
Yu, B., Tai, Y., Gao, R., Yao, Q., Li, Z., & Xia, H. (2020): The sustainable development of coal mines by new cutting roof technology. Royal Society open science, 7(6), 191913. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.191913
Zhou, C., Damiano, N., Whisner, B., & Reyes, M. (2017). Industrial Internet of Things: (IIoT) applications in underground coal mines. Mining engineering, 69(12), 50– 56. https://doi.org/10.19150/me.7919