Study of Strata Behaviour in Longwall Workings

Jump To References Section


  • Dy. Director of Mines Safety, DGMS, Dhanbad ,IN
  • Asst. Professor, Department of Mining Engineering, IIT (ISM) Dhanbad ,IN
  • Professor, Department of Mining Engineering, IIT (ISM) Dhanbad ,IN
  • Dy. Director General of Mines Safety (Retd.), SEZ, DGMS, Ranchi ,IN


Longwall Mining, Strata Behaviour, Strata Monitoring, Instrumentation.


Coal has been one of the energy resources of the country and it is extracted from earth crust by different methods. Longwall mining is the most popular and productive method of coal mining in the world. Majority of the longwall mines in India have not become as successful as they were envisaged. The main reasons for the underperformance of the longwalls in India, among others, have been strata control problems due to inadequate geological and geotechnical assessment, poor understanding of strata behaviour and selection of under rated supports. Complex strata mechanics issues like excessive stress concentrations, strata dilation or convergence of roof strata in longwall workings are potential hazard of strata failure. Therefore, proper understanding of geo-mechanics of strata and continuous strata monitoring in longwall workings is prerequisite for its effective control and ensuring safe workings. This paper discusses the strata control problems in Indian longwall mines and presents the instrumentation for strata monitoring. It also suggests a general scheme of strata monitoring in a longwall workings and explains a case study.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




How to Cite

Raghupathi, P., Budi, G., Battacharjee, R. M., & Sinha, A. K. (2022). Study of Strata Behaviour in Longwall Workings. Journal of Mines, Metals and Fuels, 66(12), 837–844. Retrieved from



Peng, S. S. (2006): Longwall mining, 2nd edn. Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (SME), Englewood.

Sarkar, S. K. (1998): “Mechanised Longwall mining, the Indian experience,” Oxford & IBP.

Mozumdar, T. K. and Pan, B. (2015): Longwall mining at shallow depth of cover in India, Partridge India.

Ghose, A. K.: “Why Longwall in India has not Succeeded as in other Developing Country Like China,” Journal of Mines, Metals and Fuels.

Shen, B., et al. (2006): An Integrated Real-Time Roof Monitoring System for Underground Coal Mines, University of Wollongong, Research Online.

Sastry, V. R. and Nair, R. (2009): “Study of behaviour of workings in longwall panel based on field instrumentation,” Int. J. Mining and Mineral Engineering, Vol.

The Nexsys, Real-time Risk Management and Decision support System: Redefining the Future of Mines Safety by Kerstin Haustein, Eleonora Widzyk-Capehart, Peter Wang, Dean Kirkwood and Ricky Prout, Research Online, University of Wollongong, 2011.

CIMFR, NIRM & ISM (2010): Report on “Investigation of cavability of overlying strata and development of guidelines for estimation of support capacity for longwall faces.”

Whittaker, B. N. (1974): “An appraisal of strata control practice.” The Mining Engineer 134(2): 9-24.

Standard Note, 01.01.2017: Government of India, Ministry of Labour & Employment, Directorate General of Mines Safety.

Real time risk analysis and hazard management by G Einicke and G Rowan; Coal 2005: Coal Operators' Conference, University of Wollongong & the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2005, pp. 299-306.

Singh, G. S. P. (2014): “Conventional approaches for assessment of caving behaviour and support requirement with regard to strata control experiences in longwall workings.” Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.

Walke, Deepak V. and Yerpude, Dr. R. R. (2015): “Significance of Strata Monitoring Instruments in Roof Fall Risk Assessment of an Underground Coal Mine,” International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 5, Issue 6, June 2015.

Raghupathi, P., et al., (2000): “New dimension in hard roof management,” Journal of Mines, Metals and Fuels, January- February-2001.

Raghupathi, P., Sinha, Dr. A. K. and Bhattacharjee, Dr. R. M. (2016): “Innovative OSH Management in Indian Mines,” APOSHO 31 Conference held on 5th -6th April, 2016 at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi.

Dattatreyulu, J. V., et al.: “Geotechnical studies for introducing high capacity longwalls and longwall top coal caving Mining in SCCL.”