An Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants used against Jaundice by Tea Tribes of Morigaon District, Assam (India)
Keywords:Ethnobotanical Study, Jaundice, Medicinal Plants, Morigaon District, Tea Tribes
AbstractThe present study was conducted to document the ethnomedicinal plants used against jaundice by the tea tribes of Morigaon district of Assam, India. An ethnomedicinal field study was carried out from June 2016 - July 2017. Information was gathered by using a semi-structured questionnaire about the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used against jaundice by the tea tribes of Morigaon district of Assam. Documented data was evaluated using the quantitative ethno-botanical indices of fidelity level (FL), Use Value (UV) and Family Use Value (FUV). From the ethno-botanical investigation, a total of 39 species of plants covering 36 genera and 27 families respectively have been enumerated. A total of 53 informants aged from 20-75 years were interviewed to record the ethnomedicinal data. Lamiaceae was the dominant family. Among the plant portions, leaves were most frequently used. Among the 39 medicinal plant species recognized mostly were herbs. The plants species having the highest use value were Drymaria cordata trailed by Xylosma longifolia and Achyranthes aspera, Aegle marmelos, Alstonia scholaris and Justicia gendarussa. The fidelity level was 100% for Achyranthes aspera, Cheilocostus speciosus, Clerodendrum infortunatum, Justicia gendarussa, Lawsonia inermis, Coffea benghalensis and Saccharum officinarum. The tea tribes of Morigaon district still relies on herbal therapies for curing jaundice. Coffea benghalensis has not been previously reported as a remedy of jaundice from Northeast India. Further research is needed to investigate the phytochemistry and pharmacological effectiveness of the plant species that could be the basis for the isolation and development of some novel phyto-therapeutic active compounds in the future.
Grí¸nhaug TE, Glí¦serud S, Skogsrud M, Ballo N, Bah S, Diallo D, Paulsen BS. Ethnopharmacological survey of six medicinal plants from Mali, West-Africa. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2008; 4:26. https://doi.org/10.1186/17464269-4-26. PMid:19111068, PMCid:PMC2633328.
Sofowora A. Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa, John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA; 1982.
Lucy H, Edgar JD. Medicinal plants: A re-emerging health aid, division of life sciences UNESCO; 1999.
Tefera BN, Kim YD. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in the Hawassa Zuria district, Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2019; 15:25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-019-0302-7. PMid:31 126296, PMCid:PMC6534827.
Karunamoorthi K, Tsehaye E. Ethnomedicinal knowledge, belief and self-reported practice of local inhabitants on traditional antimalarial plants and phytotherapy. J. Ethnopharmacol.
; 141(1):143-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.012, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.022.
Balunas MJ, Kinghorn AD. Drug discovery from medicinal plants. Life Sci. 2005; 78:431-441. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2005.09.012. PMid:16198377.
Maikhuri RK, Gangwar AK. Ethnobiological notes on the Khasi and Garo tribes of Meghalaya, Northeast India. Econ. Bot. 1993; 47:345. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02907348.
Prakash JW, Anpin Raja RD, Asbin Anderson N, Williams C, Regini GS, Bensar K, Rajeev R, Kiruba S, Jeeva S, Das SSM. Ethnomedicinal plants used by Kani tribes of Agasthiyarmalai biosphere reserve, southern Western Ghats. Indian J. Traditional Knowledge. 2008; 7(3):410-413.
Timmermans K. Intellectual property right and traditional medicine: policy dilemmas at the interface. Soc. Sci. Med. 2003; 57(4):745-756. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(02)004252.
Dutta BK, Dutta PK. Potential of ethnobotanical studies in North East India: An overview. Indian J. Traditional Knowledge. 2005; 4(1):7-14.
Mao AA, Roy DK. Ethnobotanical studies in Northeast India: A review. In: Jain AK ed. Indian Ethnobotany: Emerging trends. Scientific publisher, India; 2016. p. 99-112.
Roche SP, Kobos R. Jaundice in the adult patient. Am. Fam. Physician. 2004; 69(2):299-304.
Abbas MW, Shamshad T, Ashraf MA, Javaid R. Jaundice: a basic review. Int. J. Res. Med. Sci. 2016; 4:1313-1319. https:// doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20161196.
Sharma J, Gairola S, Gaur RD, Painuli RM. The treatment of jaundice with medicinal plants in indigenous communities of the Sub-Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 143:262-291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.06.034. PMid:22759701.
Handa SS, Sharma A, Chakraborty K. Natural products as liver protecting drugs. Fitoterapia.1986; 57:307-351.
Narzary H, Brahma S, Basumatary S. Wild edible vegetables consumed by Bodo Tribe of Kokrajhar district (Assam), North-East India. Arch. Appl. Sci. Res. 2013; 5:182-190.
Das RK. Plantation Labour in India. Prabashi Press, India; 1931.
Griffiths P. The history of Indian tea industry. Weidenfield and Nicolson, London; 1967.
Martin GJ. Ethnobotany. A "people and plants” conservation manual. World Wide Fund for Nature, Chapman and Hall, London; 1995.
Jain SK. Methods and approaches in ethnobotany. Deep Publication, New Delhi; 1989.
Kanjilal UC, Das A, Kanjilal PC, De RN. Flora of Assam, Vol 1-5. Government of Assam, Shillong; 1934-1940.
Jain SK, Rao RR. A handbook of field and herbarium technique. Today and Tomorrow Publication, New Delhi; 1977.
The Plant List (The Plant List Version 1.1, 2013) Accessed in 1st April 2018. www.theplantlist.org.
Friedman J, Yaniv Z, Dafni A, Palewitch D. A preliminary classification of the healing potential of medicinal plants, based on the rational analysis of ethnopharmacological field survey among Bedouins in Negev Desert, Israel. J. Ethnopharmacol.1986; 16:275-287. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(86)90094-2.
Alexiades MN, Sheldon JW. Selected guidelines for ethnobotanical research: A field manual. The New York Botanical garden, Boranx, New York. 1996; p. 99-133.
Tardio J, Pardo-de-Santayana M. Cultural importance indices: a comparative analysis bases on the useful wild plants of southern Cantabria (Northern Spain). Econ. Bot. 2008; 62:24-39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12231-007-90045.
Zougagh S, Belghiti A, Rochd T et al. Medicinal and aromatic plants used in traditional treatment of the oral pathology: The ethnobotanical survey in the economic capital Casablance, Morocco (North Africa). Natural Products and Bioprospecting. 2019; 9:35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13659018-0194-6. PMid:30484065, PMCid:PMC6328421.
Bhattacharyya R, Medhi KK, Borkataki S. Ethnomedicinal plants used against jaundice by the tea tribes of Nagaon district, Assam. Ethnobotany. 2016; 27:36-42.
Maruthupandian A, Mohan VR, Kottaimuthu R. Ethnomedicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes and Jaundice by Palliyar tribals in Sirumalai hills, Western Ghats, Tamilnadu, India. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources. 2011; 2(4):493-497.
Bafna A, Mishra SH. Effect of methanol of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on rifampicin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Ars. Pharmaceutica. 2004; 45(4): 343-351 (2004).
Krishna Chaitanya DA, Reddy Challa S, Reddy AM. Hepatoprotective effect of biherbalethanolic extract against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats. J. Ayurveda Integr. Med. 2012; 3(4):198-203. https://doi.org/10.4103/09759476.104436. PMid:23326091, PMCid:PMC3545240.
Ramamurthy V, Raveendran S, Kumar HVA, Hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract of Aegle marmelos leaves in paracetamol intoxicated albino rats. Int. J. Universal Pharmacy and Bio. Sci. 2014; 3(2):1-10.
Nayak V, Gincy TB, Prakash M, Joshi C, Rao S, Somayaji SN.Hepatoprotective activity of Aloe vera gel against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Asian J. Phar. Biol. Res. 2011; 1(2):94-98.
Kumar A, Khan MA, Saxena A, Singh RB. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of stem of Alstonia scholaris (L.)R. Br. Am. J. Pharma. Tech. Res. 2012; 2:2.
Adam SIY, Idris IA, Abdelgadir EH, Ahmed RH, Kamal EE. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Argemone mexicana aerial part extract on CCl4 induced liver damage in wister rats. British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology.2011; 2(5):251-256.
Ajeem AK, Mathew M, Nair C and Dilip C. Hepatoprotective effect of Averrhoa carambola fruit extract on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2012; 3(8):610-613. https:// doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(10)60148-4.
Kumar GR, Prema P, Gupta P. Hepatoprotective activity of Averrhoa carambola against paracetamol induced liver toxicity in mice. International Journal of Botany Studies. 2016; 1(7):4-6.
Chattopadhyay R, Bandyopadhyay M. Possible mechanism of hepatoprotective activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats: Part III. Indian J. Pharmacol. 2005; 37:184-185. https://doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.16218.
Akinloye OA, Olaniyi MO. Hepato-protective effect of Cajanus cajan on tissue defense system in D-galactosamineinduced hepatitis in rats. Turk J. Biochem. 2011; 36:237-241.
Gogoi JC, Mohanta D, Borah PK. Hepatoprotective Activity of Averrhoa carambola, Cajanus cajan and Paederia foetida against Acetaminophen and D-Galactosamine induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2010; 9(2):76-80. https://doi.org/10.18579/jpcrkc/2010/9/2/79491.
Hui Mei L, Hsien Chun T, Chau Jong W, Jin-Jin L, Chia Wen L, Fen-Pi C. Hepatoprotective effects of Cassia fistula Linn extract against CCl4 induced oxidative damage in rats. Chem. Biol. Interact. 2008; 171:283-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2007.08.008. PMid:18045581.
Wasu SJ, Muley BP. Hepatotective effect of Cassia fistula. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 2009; 13:910-916.
Chaudhari NB, Chittam KP, Patil VR. Hepatoprotective activity of Cassia fistula seeds against paracetamol-induced hepatic injury in rats. Arch. Pharm. Sci. Res. 2009; 1:218221.
AlSaadi BH, AlHarbi SH, Ibrahim SRM, El-Kholy AA, El-Agamy DS, Mohamed GA. Hepatoprotective activity of Costusspeciosus (koen. Ex. Retz.) against paracetamolinduced liver injury in mice. Afr. J. Tradit. Complement Altern. Med. 2018; 15(2):35-41. https://doi.org/10.21010/ ajtcamv15i2.5, https://doi.org/10.21010/ajtcam.v15i2.5.
SannigrahiS, MazumderUK, PalD, MishraSL. Hepatoprotective potential of methanol extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Phcog. Mag. 2009; 5(20):394-399.
Sengupta M, Sharma GD, Chakraborty B. Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated swiss albino mice. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 2011; 1(3):193-199. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60026-9.
Hashish EA, Elgami SA. Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effect of Curcumin against copper toxicity in rats. Indian J. Chin. Biochem. 2016; 31(3):270-277. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s12291-015-0527-8. PMid:27382197, PMCid:PMC4910845.
Surendra V, Prakash T, Sharma UR, Goli D, Dayalal S, Kotresha F. Hepatoprotective activity of aerial plants of Cynodon dactylon against CC14-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. J. Pharmacogn. Mag. 2008; 4:195-201.
Mandal SC, Maity TK, Das J, Pal M, Saha BP. Hepatoprotective activity of Ficus racemosa leaf extract on liver damage caused by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Phytother. Res. 1999; 13(5):430-432. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)10991573(199908/09)13:5<430::AID-PTR456>3.0.CO;2-G.
Ahmed F, Urooj A. Hepatoprotective effects of Ficus racemosa stem bark against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2010; 48(2):210-216. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880200903081788. PMid: 20645843.
Nayak SS, Jain R, Sahoo AK, Hepatoprotective activity of Glycosmis pentaphylla against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in swiss albino mice. Pharma Biol. 2011; 49(2):111-117. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2010.501 084. PMid:20942640.
Afjal U, Gulfraz M, Hussain SS, Malix F. Hepatoprotective effects of Justicia adahtoda L. induced liver injury in Swiss albino mice. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2013; 7:8-14. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPP12.501.
Krishna KL, Mehta TA, Patel JA. In vitro hepatoprotective activity of Justicia gendarussa stem on isolated rat hepatocytes. Pharmacology Online. 2010; 2:9-13.
Hossain MC, Himangshu S, Maji, Chakraborty P. Hepatoprotective activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn. of warm aqueous extract in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic injury in wister rats. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research.2011; 4:3.
Kumar M, Kaur P, Chandel M, Singh AP, Jain A, Kaur S. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Lawsonia inermis L. leaves against 2-acetylaminoflourene induced hepatic damage in male wister rats. BMC Complement Altern. Med. 2017; 17:56. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906017-1567-9. PMid:28100199, PMCid:PMC5242058.
Patil K, Mall A. Hepatoprotective activity of Mentha arvensis Linn. leaves against CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2012; 2(1):223226. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2222-1808(12)60156-X.
Lahon K, Das S.Hepatoprotective activity of Ocimum sanctum alcoholic leaf extract against paracetamolinduced liver damage in albino rats. Pharmacognosy Res. 2011; 3:13-18. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.79110. PMid:21731390, PMCid:PMC3119265.
Sreejith G, Jayshree M, Latha PG, Suja SR, Shymal S, Shine VJ, Anuja G, Sini S, Shikha P, Krishnakumar NM, Vilash V, Shoumya S, Rajasekharan S. Hepatoprotective activity of Oxalis corniculata L. ethanolic extract against paracetamol induced hepatocity in wister rats and invite antioxidant effects. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2014; 52(2):147-152.
Nerdy N, Ritarwan K. Hepatoprotective activity and Nephroprotective activity of peel extract from three varieties of the passion fruit (Passiflora sp.) in the albino rat. Open Access Maced. J. Med. Sci. 2019; 7(4):536-542. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.153. PMid:30894908, PMCid:PMC6420947.
Pramyothin P, Samosorn P, Poungshompoo S, Chaichantipyuth C. The protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 107:361-364. https://doi.org/10 .1016/j.jep.2006.03.035. PMid:16750340.
Ramamurthy V, Abarna T. Hepatoprotective Activity of Phyllanthus niruri whole plant extracts against Staphylococcus aureus intoxicated Albino Rats. Global J. Biol Agricul. Health Sci. 2014; 3(3):256-260.
Nirwane AM, Bapat AR. Effect of methanolic extract of Piper nigrum fruits in ethanol-CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in wistar rats. Der. Pharmacia Lettre. 2012; 4:795-802.
Kanchana N, Sadiq AM. Hepatoprotective effect of Plumbago zeylanica on paracetamol induced liver toxicity in rats. Int. J. Pharm Sci. 2011; 3:32-39.
Khan SW, Tahir M, Lone KP, Munir B, Latif W. Protective effect of Saccharum officinarum L. (sugarcane) juice on isonised induced hepatotoxicity in male albino mice. J. Ayub. Med. Coll. Abbottabad. 2015; 27(2):346-350.
Amir M, Khan MA, Ahmed S, Akhter M, Mujeeb M, Ahmed A. Ameliorating effects of Tamarindus indica fruits extract on anti-tubercular drugs induced liver toxicity in rats. Nat. Prod. Res. 2015; 30(6):715-719. https://doi.org/1 0.1080/14786419.2015.1039001. PMid: 25978515.
Rodriguez Amado JR, Lafourcade-Prada A, Escalona-Arranz JC, Peraz-Roses R, Morris-Quevedo H, Keita H. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of a new tablet formulation from Tamarindus indica L. Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. 2016; 7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/3918219. PMid:27143986, PMCid:PMC4838804.
Kumar V, Modi VK, Saxena KK. Exploration of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia- an experimental study. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res. 2013; 6(1):87-91.