To Study of the Effect of Melatoninon Noradrenaline Mediated Behavioural Responses after Electroconvulsive Shock (ECS) Administration


  • Department of Pharmacology, Dr. Vasantrao Pawar Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Vasantdadanagar, Adgaon, Nashik, Maharashtra, 422003, India
  • Department of Community Medicine


Objectives: To look for possible data regarding the effects of melatonin on noradrenaline mediated behavioral responses after Electroconvulsive Shock (ECS) administration in rats. Methods: Forty rats were divided in four groups with ten rats in each group and treatment duration was kept for ten days in all the groups. 1. Control group- distilled water (2ml daily). 2. ECS pretreated group- Single ECS daily. 3. Melatonin group- melatonin suspension (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) daily. 4. Test group- Single ECS daily + melatonin suspension one hour after ECS (10mg/kg/day, p.o). Clonidine induced sedation was used as a model to assess noradrenaline mediated behavioral changes. Clonidine induced sedation score was assessed 30 min after giving intraperitoneal injection of clonidine hydrochloride (100 μg/kg) in each group on day 11.Data was analysed by Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Findings show that administration of single ECS daily for consecutive 10 days results in enhancement of clonidine induced sedation. Melatonin administration decreases clonidine induced sedation which may be due to modulation at noradrenergic neurotransmission. Also, melatonin significantly retarded the ECS-induced enhancement of clonidine induced sedation. Conclusion: ECS administration leads to enhancement in clonidine induced sedation. Melatonin administration could prevent enhancement in clonidine induced sedation which may be due to modulation at the level of noradrenergic transmission. This modulation in noradrenergic transmission might be of some value in attenuation of disruption of memory following ECS administration. As ECT in humans is known to produce memory disruption, a possible potential therapeutic utility of melatonin to prevent memory disruption in such patient is worth considering.


Clonidine Induced Sedation, ECS, Melatonin, Noradrenaline

Subject Discipline


Full Text:


Kostoglou-Athanassiou I. Therapeutic applications of melatonin. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 4(1):13–24.

Bertaina-Anglade V, Drieu-La-Rochelle C, Mocaër E, Seguin L. Memory facilitating effects of agomelatine in the novel object recognition memory paradigm in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011; 98(4):511–7.

Geerts H, Grossberg GT. Pharmacology of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors for combination therapy in treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006; 46:8S–16S.

Keith Tully, Bolshakov VY. Emotional enhancement of memory: How norepinephrine enables synaptic plasticity. Molecular Brain. 2010; 3:15.

Drew GM, Gower AJ, Marriott AS. α2-adrenoceptors mediate clonidine-induced sedation in the rat. Br J Pharmacol. 1979; 67:133–41.

Calev A. Neuropsychology and ECT: Past and future research trends. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1994; 30:461–9.

Youdim MB, Buccafusco JJ. Multi-functional drugs for various CNS targets in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2005; 26:27–35.

Van Stegeren AH. The role of the noradrenergic system in emotional memory. Acta Psychol (Amst). 2008; 127:532–41.

McGaugh JL, Introini-Collison IB, Cahill LF, Castellano C, Dalmaz C, Parent MB, Williams CL. Neuromodulatory systems and memory storage: Role of the amygdala. Behav Brain Res. 1993; 58:81–90.

McGaugh JL. The amygdala modulates the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing experiences.Annu Rev Neurosci. 2004; 27:1–28.

Cahill L, McGaugh JL. The neurobiology of memory for emotional events: Adrenergic activation and the amygdala. Proc West Pharmacol Soc. 1996; 39:81–4.

Liang KC, Juler RG, McGaugh JL. Modulating effects of post training epinephrine on memory: Involvement of the amygdala noradrenergic system. Brain Res. 1986; 368:125–33.


  • There are currently no refbacks.