Repeated Topical Application of para-Phenylenediamine Induces Renal Histopathological Changes in Rats


  • Rajiv Gandhi University, Department of Zoology, Arunachal Pradesh, India
  • D. R. College, Golaghat, India
  • College of Veterinary Sciences, Guwahati, Department of Pathology, India
  • Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam, India


Hemolytic anemia and rhabdomyolysis have been often reported to be an adverse effect of drug- and chemicalinduced toxicity both in experimental and real-life scenario. para-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a derivative of para-nitroaniline and has been found as an ingredient of almost all hair dye formulations in varying concentrations from 2% to 4% w/v. Earlier studies have reported that the accidental oral ingestion of PPD in humans can lead to acute renal failure because of rhabdomyolysis. In the present investigation, we have tested the chronic topical application of PPD and its effect on the renal histology of Sprague-Dawley rats. The experiment provides clear evidence that topically applied PPD induces hemolytic anemia as evident from the decrease in the total RBC count, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin content apart from rhabdomyolysis which subsequently causes acute renal failure in rats.


Hemolysis, para-phenylenediamine, renal dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, topical

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