Alleviation of Lead Nitrate-Induced Nephrotoxicity by Garlic Essential Oil in Albino Mice: A Comprehensive Study on Inflammation and Genotoxicity

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  • Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali Vidyapith, Tonk - 304022, Rajasthan ,IN
  • Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali Vidyapith, Tonk - 304022, Rajasthan ,IN



Comet Assay, Garlic Essential Oil, Interleukins, Lead Nitrate, Nephrotoxicity


Lead (Pb) is a hazardous environmental contaminant that has been linked to renal impairments when consumed. As a part of this study, we explored garlic essential oil’s potential therapeutic uses against Lead nitrate (PbNo3)2-mediated nephrotoxicity. Six experimental groups of six mice each were employed and groupings were further formed as - Control, (PbNo3)2, (PbNo3)2 + low dosage of garlic essential oil, (PbNo3)2 + high dosage of garlic essential oil, (PbNo3)2 + Silymarin and (PbNo3)2 + olive oil groups. (PbNo3)2 treatment enhanced the progression of renal inflammation by activating the NFĸB signaling pathway which in turn increased the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators like TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6. With that, the reduction of IL-10 cytokine level was also noticed. Interestingly, oral administration of garlic essential oil to some extent improved biological functioning since it was able to substantially decreased the inflammatory processes in the renal tissue. The Lead nitrate intoxicated group also showed substantially higher parameters of the comet assay, including the percentage of DNA in the tail, tail length and the moment of the tail, demonstrating the degree of genetic instability caused by heavy metal exposure. However, garlic essential oil to some extent was able to recover these parameters and ensure molecular repair.


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How to Cite

Sharma, S., & Sharma, V. (2024). Alleviation of Lead Nitrate-Induced Nephrotoxicity by Garlic Essential Oil in Albino Mice: A Comprehensive Study on Inflammation and Genotoxicity. Toxicology International, 31(2), 283–293.
Received 2023-12-13
Accepted 2024-04-08
Published 2024-04-18



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