Toxicology International 2022-08-12T09:15:23+00:00 Milindmitra Lonare Open Journal Systems <div id="i-scholarabout"><img class="media-object" style="width: 222px; float: left; margin: 0px 16px 15px 20px;" src="" /> <p><strong>Editor :</strong> Dr. Vinod Kumar Dumka<br /><strong>Online ISSN :</strong> 0976-5131<br /><strong>Print ISSN :</strong> 0971-6580<br /><strong>Frequency :</strong> Quarterly<br /><strong>Publisher/s :</strong> Informatics Publishing Limited and The Society of Toxicology, India</p> <p>Article Processing Charges are to be made only if the manuscript is accepted after Peer Review. If payment is made without acceptance confirmation, then the amount will not be refunded. Toxicology International is a subscription access journal publishing original peer-reviewed research articles. The Journal Publication was Triannual and is now changed to Quarterly. The journal began publishing since 1994.</p> The Journal is Indexed in Scopus, NAAS 5.23, i-Scholar and J-gate, ICI<br /><a href="" target="blank"><img src="" alt="" width="160" height="77" /></a><a href="" target="blank"><img style="font-size: 0.875rem;" src="" alt="" width="160" height="77" /></a></div> Toxic Effects of Sub-Chronic Oral Exposure of Imidacloprid on Biochemical Parameters in Buffalo Calves 2022-08-12T09:15:13+00:00 Tsewang Dorjay Rajdeep Kaur S. P. S. Saini H. S. Sandhu Imidacloprid, is a highly effective and widely used neonicotinoid insecticide for crop protection and veterinary pest control, which has gained a major market control in the past several years. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the toxic potential of imidacloprid in buffalo calves when administered for prolonged periods. Evaluation of various biochemical markers of hepatic, renal and muscular injury was done using standardized procedures. Oral administration of imidacloprid (@ 0.5 mg/kg/day; 90 days) in male buffalo calves, produced varying degrees of nasal discharge, lachrymal discharge, lethargy and weakness. Imidacloprid exposure caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (12.3%), alanine aminotransferase (172.2%), lactate dehydrogenase (13.7%), gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (57.5%), alkaline phosphatase (37.2%), acid phosphatase (220.0%), blood urea nitrogen (148.4%), creatinine (5.22%) and cholesterol (68.9%). However, no significant changes were observed in the enzymatic activity of creatine kinase, plasma cholinesterase as well as total protein and glucose levels. 2022-08-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Toxicology International Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Antioxidant Enzymes of Zebrafish, <i>Danio rerio</i> 2022-08-12T09:15:14+00:00 A. D. Shelke The objective of the present study was to know the effect of Silver nanoparticle on antioxidant enzymatic activities in selected tissues of the Zebrafish, <em>Danio rerio</em>. For the chronic toxicity study adult fish, <em>Danio rerio</em> were divided in to two groups. First group was experimental group in which fish were consecutively treated with a graded series of 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 mg/l an average 60 nm PVP coated AgNPs. Treatment was given for 21 days at the end of experimental period. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) in gill, liver and muscle tissues were assayed. The levels of Catalase (CAT), was found to be decreased were as the Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) were found to be increased significantly in gill, liver and muscle tissue of AgNPs treated fish. 2022-08-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Toxicology International An Incidence of Onion (<i>Allium cepa</i>) Toxicity in Cattle and Buffaloes 2022-08-12T09:15:14+00:00 N. B. Shridhar Toxicity was caused by the accidental ingestion of a large quantity onion (<em>Allium cepa</em>) by 6 cattle and 4 water buffalos. The animals exhibited the clinical signs of pale mucous membranes, lethargy, anorexia and voiding dark urine after 8-10 days of ingestion of onion. The post mortem showed the odor of onion and the rumen found several bits of onions. The kidneys were dark brown with urine. Microscopy demonstrated tubular degeneration and necrosis in the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and tubular lumina with eosinophilic substance deposits. Hemorrhage and macrophages containing brown cytoplasmic pigment with centrilobular coagulative necrosis were found in liver. The ailing animals recovered with therapy with fluids, phosphorus, B-complex vitamins and vitamin C for five consecutive days. 2022-08-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Toxicology International Safety Assessment of Cefquinome on Repeated Administration in Buffalo Calves 2022-08-12T09:15:15+00:00 M. K. Patil A. P. Somkuwar N. Z. Gaikwad Experiment was performed on six healthy buffalo calves of either sex of age above 6 months and weighing between 80 to 120 kg each to study the safety of cefquinome after repeated intramuscular administration @ 2 mg/kg body weight. After repeated intramuscular administration of the drug, blood was collected from jugular vein on 0, 5<sup>th</sup>, 10<sup>th</sup> and 15<sup>th</sup> day of drug administration and on 8<sup>th</sup> day of last administration of drug in the EDTA containing tubes and clot activator tubes respectively for hematological and biochemical studies respectively. The biochemical studies such as estimation of SGOT/AST, SGPT/ALT, ALP, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen were carried out in blood plasma. It is found that there was no significant difference in hematological except Hb and PCV and biochemical parameters except ALT of buffalo calves on repeated administration of cefquinome. All the values reported in the present study were in the normal physiological range. The results on safety assessment indicated that there was no or very little effect which came to normal on 8th day after discontinuation of the treatment indicating cefquinome administration for fifteen consecutive days has no adverse effects or toxicity on buffalo calves which proved the safety of cefquinome at dosage rate of up to 2 mg/kg in buffalo calves. 2022-08-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Toxicology International Effect of Fenugreek against Induced Sub Acute Thiacloprid Toxicity in Rats 2022-08-12T09:15:16+00:00 Abhisek Choudhary Shweta Anand Sunil Boghia Rahul Swarnkar Devendra Singh The study was carried out to investigate efficacy of fenugreek against general toxicity induced by sub acute exposure of thiacloprid in rats. Wistar rats were divided in four groups having six rats in each group. Group I served as control (corn oil administered as vehicle). Group II served as thiacloprid treated group (@ 22.5 mg/kg b.wt. orally), in Group III (experimental group) thiacloprid along with fenugreek extract (@500 mg/kg.b.wt.orally) and in case of Group IV (experimental group) fenugreek seeds extract (@500 mg/kg.b.wt.orally)were administered. The thiacloprid treated groups showed clinical signs viz lacrimation, piloerection, diarrhoea and dyspnea and significantly decreased absolute and relative body weight, higher relative liver and kidney weight, decreased relative spleen weight and altered hemo-biochemical profile. Fenugreek treatment showed improvement in absolute and relative body weight and organ weight and hemo-biochemical profile. The ethanolic extract of fenugreek has the potential to restore the general toxicity, serum biochemical and hematological parameters caused by sub-acute thiacloprid toxicity. 2022-08-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Toxicology International Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Acute Oral Toxicity of Two Anthraquinones 2022-08-12T09:15:17+00:00 Pottella Srinivasulu Padarthi Pavan Kumar Ch. Aruna Kumar S. Vidyadhara Janga Ramesh Babu Bioactive compounds have been a significant therapeutic agent for decades, but the use of bio-active natural metabolites in traditional medicines and the discovery of drugs are still active. Anthraquinones are one of the secondary metabolites that are responsible for colour, fragrance and flavour to the plant; also used as colouring agents in the food and textile industries. The present aim of the study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Quinizarine (QNZ) and 2-Methyl Anthraquinone (MAQ) in C8-B4 (microglia cell lines, Mouse), SH-SY-5Y (Neuroblastoma cell lines, Human). As well, the study extended to determine the acute toxicity of these compounds on rat Sprague Dawley. Inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>) was determined for both compounds as well as acute toxicity of MAQ was determined in Sprague Dawley (SD) rat. The IC<sub>50</sub> values of MAQ and QNZ were 88.66 μg/ml, 55.33 μg/ml on C8- B4 and 88.68 μg/ml, 108.89 μg/ml on SH-SY-5Y, respectively. The acute toxicity study of fixed doses was carried out in female SD rats for both compounds. The LD<sub>50</sub> of QNZ and MAQ were found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg and less than 300 mg/kg, respectively. The haematological investigation did not show any significant variation changes among treated rats. The following biochemical parameters were investigated to include Kidney Function Tests (KFTs), Liver Function Tests (LFTs), lipid profile, electrolytes and Random Blood Glucose (RBG) were found no significant changes in the QNZ treated group as compared with the sham group but elevation of Na<sup>+</sup>, creatinine and SGOT levels in MAQ treated animals. Gross necropsy showed non-significant alteration upon QNZ administration but Lung inflammation was found in the MAQ group. The histopathological finding suggested no significant alteration in tissue histology in QNZ group but infiltration of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages in MAQ treated group. A high dose of both compounds for Single oral administration did not produce any significant alteration in morphological and behavioural parameters. The histopathological finding also supports the safety of both compounds in SD Female rats. 2022-08-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Toxicology International Isolation, Characterization and Elucidation of Invigorative Potential of Flavonoid From Stem-Bark of <i>Prosopis cineraria</i> on LPS-induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Cascade in Swiss Albino Male Mice 2022-08-12T09:15:18+00:00 Veena Sharma Preeti Sharma The present research aimed to elucidate the structure and characterize the isolated compound from stem-bark of <em>Prosopis cineraria</em> and unravel its potential against LPS-induced toxicity in mouse model. The spectral techniques were done for characterization and structure elucidation of the isolated compound (HPLC, NMR, FT-IR, LC-MS. The experimental mice were intoxicated (intra-peritoneal) with LPS (2 mg/kg body weight) and further treated with isolated compound from <em>Prosopis cineraria</em> (15 mg/kg body weight). Dexamethasone was used as a standard (10 mg/kg body weight). The oxidative stress parameters (LPO, CAT, SOD, GSH, GST and GPx) and biochemical activities (AST, ALT, ACP and ALP) were studied. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α; Prostaglandins E2; IL-6; NF-κBp65; IFN-γ and IL-10) were determined in liver homogenate. Nitric Oxide (NO) produced due to LPS-intoxication was determined by using Griess reagent. The results of the spectral analysis were used to elucidate the structure of the isolated flavonoid. The isolated flavonoid suppressed the over-expression and altered levels of oxidative parameters and cytokines due to LPS intoxication and restored the levels of TNF-α, NF-κB, NO, IL-6, IFN- , Prostaglandin E2 and IL-10. The research investigation unfolded the alleviating potential of the isolated compound against LPS-induced adverse effects by modulating the expression of cytokines and combating oxidative stress. 2022-08-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Toxicology International Acute and 90 Days Repeated Dose Toxicity of <i>Rasa parpati</i> (an Ayurvedic Mercurial Formulation) in Charles Foster Albino Rats 2022-08-12T09:15:18+00:00 Ankesh Agrawal Swapnil Chaudhari Mukesh Nariya R. Galib Pradeep Kumar Prajapati <em>Rasa parpati</em> is a unique Ayurvedic mercurial formulation extensively prescribed by Ayurvedic physicians to treat different ailments. Considering toxicity concerns of traditional formulations for containing heavy metals like Mercury, Arsenic, Lead etc.; it becomes, imperative to evaluate safety aspects of such formulations. In Ayurveda, metals and minerals are advocated to be processed through the specified guidelines before their therapeutic application. An attempt has been made to evaluate the impact of <em>Shodhana</em> on safety aspects of <em>Rasa parpati</em> through acute and 90 days repeated dose toxicity of <em>Rasa parpati</em> that was prepared by two different samples of raw materials. One by using <em>Hingulottha parada</em> and <em>Shuddha gandhaka</em> (HRP) while, another with <em>Ashuddha parada</em> and <em>Ashuddha gandhaka</em> (ARP). Oral acute toxicity of test drugs was carried out at limit dose of 2000 mg/kg orally along with adjuvant in Charles foster female rats. In 90 days repeated dose toxicity, both ARP and HRP were orally administered at therapeutically equivalent dose (22.5 mg/kg), TEDx5 (112.5 mg/kg), TEDx10 (225 mg/kg) levels along with adjuvant for 90 days. Two recovery groups were also studied in the experiment. Acute toxicity revealed that, both the test drugs did not produce any signs and symptoms of toxicity and mortality up to oral dose of 2000 mg/kg in rats. Administration of HRP for 90 days revealed that, the drug at higher dose has potential to produce liver and kidney toxicity however, can be relatively safe at therapeutic dose level. ARP has potential for liver, kidney and GI tract toxicity with deposition in other organs. The recovery study suggests that, after discontinuation of HRP the observed changes are reversible in nature while, in ARP some of the observed changes are irreversible in nature. From present study, it is concluded that HRP was found to be safer than ARP at different dose levels in rats suggesting safe use at therapeutic dose level. It proves that classical procedures like <em>Shodhana</em> are mandatorily to be followed in the pharmaceutical processing of these formulations. 2022-08-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Toxicology International Imidacloprid Induced Alterations in Behavioral and Locomotory Activity of Fingerlings of Common Carp, <i>Cyprinus carpio</i> 2022-08-12T09:15:19+00:00 Jitender Kumar Bhardwaj Harkrishan Anil K. Tyor Pesticide imidacloprid is extensively used in agriculture field to kill variety of insect pests, from where it enters into surrounding aquatic ecosystem and results into toxicity related outcomes on non-target species. The present study was planned to evaluate the sublethal toxic effects of pesticide imidacloprid on behavior and locomotory activity of fingerlings of <em>Cyprinus carpio</em>. Initially, the LC<sub>50</sub> (48 hrs) was calculated for fertilized eggs of<em> C. carpio</em> by probit analysis and was reported as 78 ppm. Further, the fingerlings of <em>C. carpio</em> were exposed to three different sublethal concentrations i.e. 7.8 ppm, 15.6 ppm and 23.4 ppm of imidacloprid along with control for 21 days and behavior of fish was supervised at regular intervals on days 2, 4, 7, 15 and 21. The control fish behaved normally but treated fishes demonstrated abnormal behavior like hyper excites, restless, loss of equilibrium, hyper activity, erratic swimming with jerky movements, excess mucus secretion, reduced skin pigmentation and loss of response to touch. Significant disruptions were also recorded in operculum beat frequency, surfacing movement and tail beat frequencies. All these outcomes are due to neurotoxic nature of imidacloprid as it blocks the receptor for neurotransmitter acetylcholine. 2022-08-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Toxicology International Impact of Cu and Hg on Biochemical Parameters of Bivalve, <i>Villorita cyprinoides</i> 2022-08-12T09:15:19+00:00 Ranjusha Nair Rajathy Sivalingam Heavy metal pollution is a growing environmental problem in marine coastal waters; for this reason the monitoring of water pollution needs the availability of test-species able to furnish reliable and cheap results. From this point of view, bivalves are important test organisms owing to their wide distribution and for their key-position within the food web. As <em>Villorita cyprinoides</em> is a promising target-species in ecotoxicology, in this study the toxicity of different concentrations of two heavy metals (copper and mercury) was evaluated, 4 mg/l and 9 mg/l of Cu were taken. Treatments were performed after 10 and 20 days of exposure on adult <em>Villorita cyprinoides</em>. The biochemistry of the animals was evaluated. There was marked decrease observed in the stored glycogen level in the hepatopancrease of the organism, 35.77 mg gm<sup>-1</sup> after 20 days with a concentration of 4 ppm and 30.57 at 9 ppm after 20 days exposure to Cu. There was a significant decrease in the level of protein content in the foot and hepatopancrease in presence of Cu. The protein content of the foot, after 20 days, in 4 ppm and 9 ppm was 15.62 and 10.25 mg/l respectively. The level of protein decreased to 13.37 and 14.12 mg gm<sup>-1</sup> respectively in the hepatopancrease after 20 days of exposure to 4 ppm and 9 ppm. The results showed that mercury (0.1 and 0.3 mg/l) was toxic for <em>Villorita cyprinoides</em>. Animals exposed to Hg alone as well as in combination with Cu and Hg exhibited high mortality rate. The synergistic effect of the metals was more lethal. The study shows that the prolonged exposure of the heavy metals resulted in anoxic condition. The stress condition resulted in the utilization of stored energy. 2022-08-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Toxicology International Effect of Plant Growth Regulators and Fertigation on Growth of Pomegranate cv. Sinduri under High Density Planting System in Sub-humid Plains of South Eastern Rajasthan 2022-08-12T09:15:20+00:00 Mahaveer Suman M. C. Jain Jitendra Singh R. R. Meena Ashok Kumar Ashutosh Mishra Prerak Bhatnagar An investigation was carried out under the Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar. The experiment was conducted in the pomegranate orchard established under high density planting system at the Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jhalawar in the near vicinity of the college during July 2018 to December 2018 and again during July 2019 to December 2019. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design and experiment comprised of 27 treatment combinations consisting of plant growth regulators levels (NAA 0, 50 and 100 ppm and ethrel 0, 150 and 250 ppm) and fertigation levels (0, 75 and 100% recommended dose of fertilizers). Results revealed that maximum mean per cent increase in plant height (10.34), plant spread viz., East-West (7.01) and North-South (6.62), canopy volume (25.87) and leaf area (19.51 cm<sup>2</sup>) was recorded under F2 (fertigation 100% recommended dose of fertilizers). However, interaction effect of NAA, ethrel and fertigation were found to be relatively higher to their individual effect. In interaction effect maximum mean per cent increase in plant height (13.28), plant spread viz., East-West (8.03) and North-South (7.71), canopy volume (31.72) and leaf area (23.55 cm<sup>2</sup>) was recorded under N2E1F2 (100 ppm NAA + 150 ppm ethrel + 100% RDF through fertigation). 2022-08-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Toxicology International Rutin a Citrus Flavonoid Attenuates Sodium Arsenate Induced Cytotoxicity in CHO Cells 2022-08-12T09:15:21+00:00 S. A. Salmataj Pushpanjali Bhat Shobha Kamath The potential role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis induced by arsenic proposes that antioxidants can be deliberated as an alternative approach in alleviating arsenic-induced toxicity. The aim of this work was to assay in vitro the potential advantageous effects of plant flavonoid rutin against arsenate exposure, by studying lipid peroxidation and the stress-related markers. Rutin, a flavanol, has been exhibiting anti-cancer property, mitigating, hostile to diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. CHO cells were selected to study the effect of sodiumarsenate and its amelioration by rutin a citrus flavonoid glycoside. Sodium arsenate at low concentration induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. MTT assay, Catalase, Superoxide dismutase, GSH, GST and lipid peroxidation was measured in CHO cell. Pre-treatment of CHO cells with rutin attenuated arsenate induced toxicity. DNA damage was also measured. 2022-08-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Toxicology International Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Isolated Anthraquinones from the Root of <i>Rubia cordifolia</i> Linn 2022-08-12T09:15:21+00:00 Pottella Srinivasulu Padarthi Pavan Kumar Ch Aruna Kumar J. Venkateswara Rao S. Vidyadhara Janga Ramesh Babu The present study was intended to screen the antibacterial activity of anthraquinones i.e. 2-Methyl Anthraquinone (MAQ) and Quinizarine (QNZ), isolated from roots of <em>Rubia cordifolia</em> Linn. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of isolated anthraquinones was evaluated against selected gram-positive [<em>Bacillus subtilis</em> (BS) and<em> Staphylococcus aureus</em> (SA)] and gram-negative [<em>Serratia marcescens</em> (SM) and <em>Escherichia coli</em> (EC)] bacterial strains. The MIC was determined by micro broth dilution method using Tryptone Soya Broth (TSB) in 96 well plates as well as by measuring zone of inhibition using nutrient agar medium by the cup-plate method. Absorbance values after micro broth dilution revealed the significant MIC of MAQ as 40 μg/mL against BS, 40 μg/mL of MAQ against SA and 80 μg/mL of MAQ against SM. Whereas, The MIC of QNZ was 20 μg/mL against EC. Percentage zone of inhibition after cup-plate method revealed the significant MIC of MAQ as 39.8% against BS when compared with vancomycin, 88.33% against SA when compared with linezolid, 53.37% against SM when compared with amikacin. Whereas, percentage zone of inhibition revealed the significant MIC of QNZ as 53.76% against EC when compared with ciprofloxacin. Based on the MIC results after both micro broth dilution and cup-plate method, we observed that MAQ has shown considerable antibacterial activity against selected bacteria. 2022-08-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Toxicology International Effects of Caffeine on the Fertility of <i>Hermetia Illucens</i> (Stratiomyidae), fed with Coffee Pulp 2022-08-12T09:15:22+00:00 Michelle Alexandra Pardo Nancy Soraya Carrejo Gironza Coffee Pulp is a residue with high concentrations of caffeine, which is a harmful alkaloid that affects fertility in Diptera. The main objective of this study is to define how the caffeine present in the Coffee Pulp affects the fertility of <em>H. illucens</em>, seeking to establish if the bioconversion of Coffee Pulp affects the long-term reproduction of adults. For this purpose, larvae were fed with fresh Coffee Pulp and solid vegetable waste. The pre-pupae obtained were weighed and the internal genitalia of 90 females from each diet were dissected. Afterwards, crosses were conducted between the adults from each diet, the egg clutches were weighed and the emerged larvae were counted. We encountered that the Coffee Pulp does not affect the adults' survival or the weight of the pre-pupae, but it does affect the developmental duration of the immature state. No significant differences were found in the oocyte production between diets, but their size varied according to the females' age. We found that the hatching rate varied significantly between the crosses and the control. With this study we can affirm that caffeine does not affect the fertility of <em>H. illucens</em>, but we cannot affirm that it affects the hatching rate. The economic and environmental impact of our results is significant, due to the potential that <em>H. illucens</em> has in the bioconversion of Coffee Pulp and the commercial use of the byproducts. 2022-08-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Toxicology International Voltammetric Approach of Arsenic (Total) Determination in Blood using Sctrace Gold Electrode 2022-08-12T09:15:22+00:00 Kamakshi Mehta Rohit Kanojia A. K. Jaiswal Tabin Millo Normal levels of Arsenic (As) in the blood of unexposed individuals arereported to be less than 1 μg/L. The quantitative determination of arsenic traces and its compounds is significant to assess its deleterious effects on human health. The use of conventional methods (AAS and ICP–MS) for trace metal detection extend several issues such as high cost of equipment, need of highly trained engineers and extensive sample preparations. An alternativevoltammetric method has been developed for arsenic determination in blood using scTrace Gold elcetrode. The scTrace Gold sensor holds all three electrodes together required for a voltammetric determination. The working electrode is a gold microwire whereas reference and auxiliary electrodes are screen printed electrodes. Human blood was processed by closed microwave digestion using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Arsenic determination was carried out by standard addition method using primary solution being swept at a rate of 0.992 V/s and pulse amplitude of 0.020 V. Cleaning was done at – 1.0V for 60 seconds and potential was scanned from 0.4V to -1.0V on RDE/SSE at 2400 rpm speed. With this method, the total arsenic i.e., As(III) + As(V) in the sample can be determined. As(V) species being electrochemically inactive are reduced in-situ by nascent hydrogen to As (III). Along with the As(III) present in the sample, it is further reduced electrochemically to As(0) and deposited on the gold working electrode in the same step. During the subsequent stripping step the deposited As(0) is reoxidized to As(III) giving the analytical signal. Arsenic was deposited on the electrode at -0.250 V for 5 seconds. The deposited metal was swept by scanning the potential from -0.300V to 0.40 V using square wave mode. The stripping current was correlated with the concentration of the metal present in the sample. The detection limit of arsenic was found to be 0.9 μg/L and the calibration was linear up to a concentration of 20 μg/L. 2022-08-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Toxicology International