Potential of Trichoderma Spp. as Biocontrol Agents against Pathogens Causing Maydis Leaf Blight of Maize
Keywords:Antagonism, Helminthosporium maydis, Trichoderma, Zea mays.
AbstractEfficacy of bioagents against Helminthosporium maydis was studied in vitro and under field condition at Trihut college of Agriculture, Dholi (Muzaffarpur) in 2005 and 2006. Among the three native antagonist isolates of Trichoderma viride. Trichoderma harzianum and T. virens screened, T. viride inhibited the radial growth of H. maydis to an extent of 60.7% followed by T. harzianum (55.1%) and T. virens (52.6%). Studies on hyphal interaction between antagonists and test fungus revealed disorganization of protoplasmic content and lysis of host hyphae. Soil application of bioagents was more effective in protecting the crop than foliar spray. Soil application of T. viride resulted in minimum disease intensity (2.6) followed by T. harzianum (2.8) and T. virens (3.0). Soil application of T viride also gave maximum yield (18.6q ha-1) followed by T. harzianum (17.7q ha-1) and T. virens (17.3q ha-1), respectively. These results suggest the need to augment soil application of Trichoderma for obtaining effective management of maydis leaf blight.
Chet, I. 1987. Trichoderma – application, mode of action and potential as a biocontrol agent of soil borne plant pathogenic fungi, pp. 137-160. In: Chet, I. (Ed.), Innovative Approaches to plant disease control, John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.
Chet, I., Harman, G.E. and Baker, R.1981.Trichoderma harzianum I: its hyphal interaction with Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp. Microbiology, 7: 29-38.
Elad, Y., Chet. I. and Henis, Y. 1982. Degradation of plant pathogenic fungi by Trichoderma harzianum. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 28: 719-725.
Harman, G. E. 2000. Myth and dogmas of biocontrol changes in perceptions derived from research on Trichoderma harzianum T-22. Plant Disease, 84: 377-393.
Jha, M. M., Kumar, S. and Haasan, S. 2004. Response of bioagents against maydis leaf blight of maize. Annals of Biology, 20: 177-179.
Kuruvilla Jacob, C. and Shivprakasam, K. 1994. Development of cheap system of mass multiplication and delivery of Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride, pp. 143 – 155. In: Crop diseases innovative techniques and management, Kalyani publishers, New Delhi.
Morton, D. J. and Straube, W. H. 1955. Antagonistic and stimulatory effect of microorganisms upon Sclerotium rolfsii. Phytopathology, 45: 417- 420.
Payak, M. M and Sharma, R .C. 1987. An inventory of bibliography on maize diseases in India. IARI, New Delhi, 44p.
Prasad, R. D., Rangeshwaran, R., Hegde, S. V. and Anuroop, C. V. 2002. Effect of seed and soil application of Trichoderma harzianum on pigeon pea wilt caused by Fusarium udum under field conditions. Crop Protection, 21: 293-297.
Rudresh, D. L., Shivprakash, M. K. and Prasad, R. D. 2005. Potential of Trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents of pathogens involved in wilt complex of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L). Journal of Biological Control, 19: 157-166.
Sharma, B. K. 1999. Efficacy of biocontrol agents for the control of chickpea stem rot. Journal of Biological Control, 8: 115-117.
Srinivasulu, B., Krishna Kumar, K. V., Aruna, K., Krishnaprasadji, J. and Rao, D. V. R. 2005. In vitro antagonism of three Trichoderma spp. against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., a collar rot pathogen in elephant foot yam. Journal of Biological Control, 19: 167-171.
Upadhyay, J. P. and Mukhopadhyay, A. N. 1986. Biological control of Sclerotium rolfsii by Trichoderma harzianum in sugarbeet. Tropical Pest Management, 32: 216-220.
Vincent, J. H. 1947. Distortion of fungal hyphae in the presence of certain inhibitors. Nature, 15: 850.