Antioxidant Properties of Red Betel (Piper crocatum) Leaf Extract and Its Compounds


  • Universitas Prima Indonesia, Faculty of Medicine, Medan, North Sumatera, 20118, Indonesia
  • Biomolecular and Biomedical Research Center, Aretha Medika Utama, Bandung, West Java, 40163, Indonesia


Background: Piper crocatum, also known as red betel, is a potential herbal medicine. Aims: Current study was planned to determine the antioxidant activities of red betel (Piper crocatum Ruiz and Pav.) leaves extract (RBLE) as compared to eugenol and hydroxychavicol compounds. Methods: DPPH radical scavenging, H2O2 scavenging, ABTS reduction, and FRAP reduction assay were carried out. Results: In DPPH scavenging, RBLE showed an IC50 value of 3.98 μg/mL, eugenol of 2.98 μg/mL, and hydroxychavicol of 18.00 μg/mL. Meanwhile, H2O2 scavenging activity showed an IC50 value of RBLE, eugenol, and hydroxychavicol as 186.33 μg/mL, 97.36 μg/mL, and 41.06 μg/mL respectively. ABTS reduction assay showed an IC50 value of 38.43 μg/mL, 181 μg/mL, and 3.10 μg/mL for RBLE, eugenol, and hydroxychavicol respectively. The highest FRAP reduction activity was shown by Eugenol with a concentration of 50 μg/mL which was equal to 424.67 μM Fe (II)/μg. Conclusion: The RBLE and its compounds (eugenol and hydroxychavicol) have antioxidant activity as indicated by the results of the DPPH scavenging, H2O2 scavenging, ABTS reduction, and FRAP reduction assays. However, RBLE had the lowest antioxidant activity compared to other compounds.


Eugenol, Free Radicals, Hydroxychavicol, Piper crocatum

Full Text:


Risdian C, Widowati W, Mozef T, Wargasetia TL, Khiong K. Free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic leaves extract and its different solvent fractions of Piper betle L. in vitro. Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention. 2011; 2(1):141–5.

Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacognosy Reviews. 2010; 4(8):118–26. PMid:22228951 PMCid:PMC3249911

Shah P, Modi HA. Comparative study of DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays for determination of antioxidant activity. International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology. 2015; 3(6).

Kusuma SAF, Sumiwi SA, Riska DAM. Effect of red Piper betle leaf (Piper crocatum Ruiz and Pav.) ethanolic extract on plasma biochemical and hematological parameters in vivo. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2017; 11(11):9–12.

Widowati W, Wijaya L, Wargasetia TL, Bachtiar I, Yelliantty Y, Laksmitawati D. Antioxidant, anticancer, and apoptosisinducing effects of Piper extracts in HeLa cells. Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine. 2013; 3(3):225–30.

Wulandari N, Meiftasari A, Fadliyah H, Jenie RI. Red betel leaves methanolic extract (Piper crocatum Ruiz and Pav.) increases cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin on WiDr colon cancer cells through apoptosis induction. Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention. 2018; 9(1):1–8.

Misra P, Kumar A, Khare P, Gupta S, Kumar N, Dube A. Pro-apoptotic effect of the landrace bangla mahoba of Piper betle on Leishmania donovani may be due to the high content of eugenol. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2009; 58(8):1058–66. PMid:19528177

Ali I, Khan FG, Suri KA, Gupta BD, Satti NK, Dutt P, et al. In vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from Piper betle L. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials. 2010; 9(7):1–9. PMid:20128889 PMCid:PMC2841090

Singha IM, Kakoty Y, Unni BG, Kalita MC, Das J, Naglot A, et al. Control of Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici using leaf extract of Piper betle L.: A preliminary study. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2011; 27(11):2583–9.

Sanubol A, Chaveerach A, Tanee T, Sudmoon R. Pre-clinical evaluation of extracts and essential oils from betel-like scent Piper species identified potential cancer treatment. The African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative medicines. 2017; 14(1):89–102. https:// PMid:28480386 PMCid:PMC5411888

Widowati W, Janeva BW, Nadya S, Amalia A, Arumwardana S, Kusuma HSW, et al. Antioxidant and antiaging activities of Jasminum sambac extract, and its compounds. Journal of Reports in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018; 7(3):270–85.

Widowati W, Rani AP, Hamzah RA, Arumwardana S, Afifah E, Kusuma HSW, et al. Antioxidant and antiaging assays of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract and its compounds. Natural Product Sciences. 2017; 23(3):192–200.

Widowati W, Afifah E, Herdiman H, Nufus H, Arumwardana S, Rihibiha DD, et al. Antioxidant and anti-aging assays of Oryza sativa extracts, vanillin and coumaric acid. Journal of Natural Remedies. 2016; 16(3):88–99.

Widowati W, Maesaroh M, Ratnawati H, Constantia G, Deva IDGS, Herlina T. Antioxidant potential of black, green and oolong tea methanol extracts. Biology Medicie and Natural Product Chemistry. 2015; 4(2):38–43. https://

Mukhopadhyay D, Dasgupta P, Sinha Roy D, Palchoudhuri S, Chatterjee I, Ali S, et al. A sensitive in vitro spectrophotometric hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay using 1,10-phenanthroline. FreeRadicalsAntioxidants. 2016; 6(1):124–32.

Utami S, Adityaningsari P, Sosiawan I, Endrini S, Sachrowardi QR, Laksono SP, et al. Antioxidants and anticholinesterase activities of the characterized ethanolic of ripe sesoot (Garcinia picrorrhiza Miq.) fruit extract (GpKar) and xanthone. Majalah Obat Tradisional. 2017; 22(3):160–5.

Alfarabi M, Bintang M, Suryani S, Safithri M. The comparative ability of antioxidant activity of Piper crocatum in inhibiting fatty acid oxidation and free radical scavenging. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences. 2010; 17(4):201–4. https://

Dasgupta N, De B. Antioxidant activity of Piper betle L. leaf extract in vitro. Food Chemistry. 2004; 88:219–24. https://

Tamuly C, Hazarika M, Bora J, Gajurel PR. Antioxidant activities and phenolic content of Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand.-Mazz. International Journal of Food Properties. 2014; 17(2):309–20. 1.631250

Srivastava J, Kumar S, Vankar PS. Correlation of antioxidant activity and phytochemical profile in native plants. Nutrition & Food Science information. 2012; 42(2):71–9.


  • There are currently no refbacks.