An Evidence-Based Review of Anti‐Obesity and Weight Lowering Effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe and Terminalia chebula Retz


  • Department of Pharmacology, Parul Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Parul University, Vadodara – 391760, Gujarat
  • Department of Pharmacology, Parul Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Parul University, Vadodara – 391760, Gujarat
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Parul Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Parul University, Vadodara – 391760, Gujarat
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Parul Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Parul University, Vadodara – 391760, Gujarat
  • Department of Pharmacognosy, Parul Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Parul University, Vadodara – 391760, Gujarat



Black Myrobalan, Ginger, Inji, Kadukkai, Siddha, Sukku


Since time immemorial, the Indian medical system, particularly Ayurveda and Siddha, has prioritised prevention and health over symptoms and drugs. Siddha, an Indian system of medicine, originated in ancient Thamilakam (currently Tamil Nadu, India). The combination of Inji (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), Sukku (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Kadukkai (Terminalia chebula Retz) as herbal therapy with numerous chemical constituents can be considered a better pharmacological approach than consuming individual ingredients and/or chemical constituents. This review is an attempt to summarize the evidence related to the anti-obesity and weight-lowering effects of ginger and T. chebula. The overall view shows an anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Zingiber officinale and Terminalia chebula.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Mohan Maruga Raja MK and Mishra SH. Comprehensive review of Clerodendrum phlomidis: a traditionally used bitter. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2010; 8(6):510-24. DOI:

Mohan Maruga Raja MK, Patel RS and Mishra SH. Identification and quantification of adrenaline from the leaves of Clerodendrum phlomidis using thin-layer chromatography. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2011; 9(1):105-8. DOI:

Raja MM and Mishra SH. Quantification of L-DOPA, lupeol and β-sitosterol from leaves of Clerodendrum phlomidis by TLC. Herba Polonica. 2009; 55 (4):44-51.

Devarajan A and Mohanmarugaraja MK. A Comprehensive Review on Rasam: A South Indian Traditional Functional Food. Pharmacogn Rev. 2017; 11(22):73-82. phrev_13_17 DOI:

Raja MK, Sethiya NK, Mishra SH. A comprehensive review on Nymphaea stellata: A traditionally used bitter. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2010 Jul;1(3):311-9. DOI: accessed 5th July 2022. miscellaneous/113979-kadukkai-various-uses accessed 5th July 2022.

Wagner H and Ulrich-Merzenich G. Synergy research: approaching a new generation of phytopharmaceuticals. Phytomedicine. 2009; 16(2-3):97-110. DOI:

Chrubasik S, Pittler MH and Roufogalis BD. Zingiberis rhizoma: A comprehensive review on the ginger effect and efficacy profiles. Phytomedicine. 2005; 12(9):684-701. DOI:

Terry R, Posadzki P and Watson LK, et al. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale) for the treatment of pain: A systematic review of clinical trials. Pain Medicine. 2011; 12(12):1808-18. DOI:

Anh NH, Kim SJ, Long NP, Min JE, Yoon YC, Lee EG, Kim M, Kim TJ, Yang YY, Son EY, Yoon SJ, Diem NC, Kim HM, Kwon SW. Ginger on Human Health: A Comprehensive Systematic Review of 109 Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2020; 12(1):157. DOI:

Maharlouei N, Tabrizi R, Lankarani KB, Rezaianzadeh A, Akbari M, Kolahdooz F, Rahimi M, Keneshlou F and Asemi Z. The effects of ginger intake on weight loss and metabolic profiles among overweight and obese subjects: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2019; 59(11):1753-1766. DOI: accessed on 05th July 2022.

Huang XW, Chen LJ, Luo YB, Guo HY and Ren FZ. Purification, characterization, and milk coagulating properties of ginger proteases. J Dairy Sci. 2011; 94(5):2259-69. Erratum in: J Dairy Sci. 2011; 94(8):4242. DOI:

Bhattarai S, Tran VH and Duke CC. The stability of gingerol and shogaol in aqueous solutions. J Pharm Sci. 2001; 90(10):1658-64. jps.1116 DOI:

An K, Zhao D, Wang Z, Wu J, Xu Y and Xiao G. Comparison of different drying methods on Chinese ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): Changes in volatiles, chemical profile, antioxidant properties, and microstructure. Food Chem. 2016; 197 Pt B:1292- 300. DOI:

Moghaddasi MS and Kashani HH. Ginger (Zingiber officinale): A review. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 2012; 6(26):4255-4258. https://doi. org/10.5897/JMPR011.787 DOI:

Shirin Adel PR and Prakash J. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of ginger root (Zingiber officinale). Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 2010; 4(24):2674-2679. DOI: 169231/nutrients accessed on 25th July 2022. wwwtax.cgi?mode=Info&id=155022 accessed on 25th July 2022. 2431324 accessed on 25th July 2022.

Manjunath A, B Iranna K and Vinod U. Identification and Validation of Different Types of Fruit of Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Retz.) in North-Western Ghats of North Karnataka with Special Reference to HPTLC. JYP [Internet]. 2019; 11(3):254-60. DOI:

Ratha KK and Joshi GC. Haritaki (Chebulic myrobalan) and its varieties. Ayu. 2013; 34(3):331-4. DOI: 361-haritaki accessed on 25th July 2022.

Saleem A, Husheem M, Harkonen P, Pihlaja K. Inhibition of cancer cell growth by crude extract and the phenolics of Terminalia chebula Retz. fruit. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 81(3):327-36. DOI:

Han Q, Song J, Qiao C, Wong L and Xu H. Preparative isolation of hydrolysable tannins chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid from Terminalia chebula by high-speed counter-current chromatography. J Sep Sci. 2006; 29(11):1653-7. jssc.200600089 DOI:

Lee HS, Jung SH, Yun BS and Lee KW. Isolation of chebulic acid from Terminalia chebula Retz. and its antioxidant effect in isolated rat hepatocytes. Arch Toxicol. 2007; 81(3):211-8. s00204-006-0139-4 DOI:

Lee HS, Koo YC, Suh HJ, Kim KY and Lee KW. Preventive effects of chebulic acid isolated from Terminalia chebula on advanced glycation endproduct- induced endothelial cell dysfunction. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010; 131(3):567-74. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.07.039 DOI:

Chattopadhyay RR and Bhattacharyya SK. Terminalia chebula: An update. Phcog Rev. 2007; 1(1):151-156.

Ahmad I, Mehmood Z and Mohammad F. Screening of some Indian medicinal plants for their antimicrobial properties. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998; 62(2):183-93. DOI:

Bag A, Bhattacharyya SK and Chattopadhyay RR. The development of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) in clinical research. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013; 3(3):244-52. S2221-1691(13)60059-3 DOI: Terminalia.pdf accessed on 25th July 2022. id=2&taxon_id=200014747 accessed on 25th July 2022.

Bekkouch O, Harnafi M, Touiss I, Khatib S, Harnafi H, Alem C and Amrani S. In Vitro Antioxidant and In Vivo Lipid-Lowering Properties of Zingiber officinale Crude Aqueous Extract and Methanolic Fraction: A Follow-Up Study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019; 2019:9734390. DOI:

Nazish I, Ansari SH, Arora P and Ahmad A. Antiobesity activity of Zingiber officinale. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2016; 8(5):440-446. DOI:

Bhandari U, Sharma JN and Zafar R. The protective action of ethanolic ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in cholesterol fed rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998; 61(2):167-71. DOI:

Nammi S, Sreemantula S and Roufogalis BD. Protective effects of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome on the development of metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009; 104(5):366-73.https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1742-7843.2008.00362.x DOI:

Sultana S, Akter S and Khan MI. Anti- Hyperlipidemic Action of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) Juice in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats. Ibrahim Medical College Journal. 2013; 6(2):55-58. DOI:

Kadnur SV and Goyal RK. Beneficial effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on fructose induced hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2005; 43(12):1161-4.

Islam MS and Choi H. Comparative effects of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) investigated in a type 2 diabetes model of rats. J Med Food. 2008; 11(1):152-9. jmf.2007.634 DOI:

Al-Tahtawy R, El-Bastawesy A, Monem Abdel MG, Zekry ZK, Al-Mehdar HA and El-Merzabani MM. Antioxidant activity of the volatile oils of Zingiber officinale (ginger). Spatula DD. 2011; 1(1):1-8. DOI:

Patrick AT, Faith PS and Umaru HA. The Effects of Crude Extracts of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) On Some Lipid Profile Parameters In High-Fat Fed Rats. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2015; 5:123-127.

Li C, Li J, Jiang F, Tzvetkov NT, Horbanczuk JO, Li Y, Atanasov AG and Wang D. Vasculoprotective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and underlying molecular mechanisms. Food Funct. 2021; 12(5):1897-1913. D0FO02210A DOI:

Lebda M, Taha MN, El-Wahab A and Goda R. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) potentiate paracetamol induced chronic hepatotoxicity in Rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2013; 7(42):3164-3170.

Helal EGE, Abd El-Wahab SM, Moussa Sharaf AM and Zedan GA. Effect of Zingiber officinale on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats. The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine. 2012; 46:26- 42. DOI:

Al-Hadidy AAA. The effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on some hormones level and lipid profile in blood serum of male White New Zealand rabbits treated with cholesterol. Plant Archives 2020; 20(2):8141-8146.

Makhdoomi Arzati M, Mohammadzadeh Honarvar N, Saedisomeolia A, Anvari S, Effatpanah M, Makhdoomi Arzati R, Yekaninejad MS, Hashemi R and Djalali M. The Effects of Ginger on Fasting Blood Sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, and Lipid Profiles in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2017; 15(4):e57927. ijem.57927 DOI:

Ebrahimzadeh Attari V, Ostadrahimi A, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Mehralizadeh S and Mahluji S. Changes of serum adipocytokines and body weight following Zingiber officinale supplementation in obese women: a RCT. Eur J Nutr. 2016; 55(6):2129-36. https://doi. org/10.1007/s00394-015-1027-6 DOI:

Rihana K and Shagufta A. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of a combination of zanjabeel (Zingiber officinale) and amla (Emblica officinalis) in hyperlipidaemia. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. 2009; 8(3):413-416.

Bordia A, Verma SK and Srivastava KC. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997; 56(5):379-84.https://doi. org/10.1016/S0952-3278(97)90587-1 DOI:

Pearson DA, Frankel EN, Aeschbach R and German JB. Inhibition of Endothelial Cell-Mediated Oxidation of Low-Density Lipoprotein by Rosemary and Plant Phenolics. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1997; 45(3):578-582. DOI:

Sujatha R and Srinivas L. Modulation of lipid peroxidation by dietary components. Toxicol In Vitro. 1995; 9(3):231-6.https://doi. org/10.1016/0887-2333(95)00005-S DOI:

Jafarnejad S, Keshavarz SA, Mahbubi S, Saremi S, Arab A, Abbasi S and Djafarian K. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose and lipid concentrations in diabetic and hyperlipidemic subjects: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Functional Foods. 2017; 29:127-134. DOI:

Mushtaq S, Bilal AZ and Hassan Shah SF. Effect of Dried Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Serum Total Cholesterol Level in Hyperlipidemic Patients. Annals of King Edward Medical University. 2019; 24(4).

Alizadeh-Navaei R, Roozbeh F, Saravi M, Pouramir M, Jalali F and Moghadamnia AA. Investigation of the effect of ginger on the lipid levels. A double blind controlled clinical trial. Saudi Med J. 2008; 29(9):1280-4.

Akbar S. Handbook of 200 Medicinal Plants: A Comprehensive Review of Their Traditional Medical Uses and Scientific Justifications. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. 2020. DOI:

Singh I, Singh PK, Bhansali S, Shafiq N, Malhotra S, Pandhi P and Pal Singh A. Effects of three different doses of a fruit extract of Terminalia chebula on metabolic components of metabolic syndrome, in a rat model. Phytother Res. 2010; 24(1):107-12. DOI:

Sotoudeh R, Hadjzadeh MA, Gholamnezhad Z and Aghaei A. The anti-diabetic and antioxidant effects of a combination of Commiphora mukul, Commiphora myrrha and Terminalia chebula in diabetic rats. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2019; 9(5):454-464.

Eid F, Helal E and El-Wahsh A. Hypolipidemic effect of triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis) on female albino rats. The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine. 2011; 43(1):226-240. ejhm.2011.16780 DOI:

Ahmadi-Naji R, Heidarian E and Ghatreh-Samani K. Evaluation of the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Terminalia chebula fruits on diazinon-induced liver toxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2017; 7(5):454-466.

David Raj C, Jayanthi V, Manaswini VS, Gayathri R, Ranjani C and Brindha P. Effect of polyherbal formulation (ob-6) on high -fat diet- induced hyperlipidemia in rats. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012; 4(Suppl 2):31-5.

Reddy MM, Dhas Devavaram J, Dhas J, Adeghate E and Starling Emerald B. Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of methanol bark extract of Terminalia chebula in male albino Wistar rats. Pharm Biol. 2015; 53(8):1133-40. DOI:




How to Cite

Kakadiya, J., Soni, S., Sharma, S., Shastri, S., & Mohan Maruga Raja, M. K. (2022). An Evidence-Based Review of Anti‐Obesity and Weight Lowering Effects of <i>Zingiber officinale</i> Roscoe and <i>Terminalia chebula</i> Retz. Journal of Natural Remedies, 22(4), 517–527.



Review Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)