Oral Health Behavior: Prevalence and Pattern of Dental Caries In 11–16-year-old Children of Various Socioeconomic Strata


Affiliations

  • Panjab University, Department of Pedodontics, Dr. HSJ Institute of Dental Sciences, Chandigarh, India
  • Panjab University Extension Library, Department of Pedodontics, Dr. HSJ Institute of Dental Sciences, Chandigarh, India
  • Panjab University, Department of Oral Pathology, Dr. HSJ Institute of Dental Sciences, Chandigarh, India
  • Panjab University, Department of Public Health Dentistry, Dr. HSJ Institute of Dental Sciences, Chandigarh, India
  • Panjab University, Department of Pedodontics, Dr. HSJ Institute of Dental Sciences,, Chandigarh, India
  • PGIMER, Department of Pedodontics, Oral Health Sciences Center, Chandigarh, India

Abstract

Objectives: To evaluate the oral health behavior, prevalence and pattern of dental caries in 11–16-year-old children of various socioeconomic strata in a north-western Indian city were determined. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 2294 children across two age groups— 11–13 and 14–16 years—using a WHO oral health questionnaire and a WHO oral health assessment form-2013 to record the oral health behavior and dental caries, respectively. The revised Kuppuswamy socioeconomic scale determined the socioeconomic status. Results: Dental caries was observed in 60% children of the upper socioeconomic strata (mean DMFT of 2.00 ± 2.35), 68% in the upper middle strata (mean DMFT 2.40 ± 2.54), 73.3% in the lower middle strata (mean DMFT 2.75 ± 2.81), and 83.7% in the lower strata (mean DMFT 3.93 ± 3.07). DMFT was significantly more (a) in girls than in boys and also (b) in the older 14–16-year age group compared to the 11–13-year age group. Conclusions: The study has shown a 73.2% prevalence of dental caries (mean DMFT 2.93 ± 2.86), an inverse correlation of caries with socioeconomic status, and higher DMFT in girls and in the older age group. Implementation of regular school dental health programs, promotion of healthy dietary habits, and a proactive regular involvement of parents, teachers, and community will promote good oral health.

Keywords

Behavior, Children, Dental caries, Prevalence, Socioeconomic status

Subject Discipline

Dentistry

Full Text:

References

Fejerskov O, Kidd EAM. Dental Caries: The Disease and its Clinical Management. Copenhagen: Munksgaard; 2003.

Bagramian RA, Garcia-Godoy F, Volpe AR. The global increase in dental caries. A pending public health crisis. Am J Dent. 2009;22:3–8.

Ahmed NA, Åstrøm AN, Skaug N, Petersen PE. Dental caries prevalence and risk factors among 12-year old schoolchildren from Baghdad, Iraq: a post-war survey. Int Dent J. 2007;57:36–44.

National oral health survey and fluoride mapping. An epidemiological study of oral health problems and estimation of fluoride levels in drinking water. Dental Council of India New Delhi. 2004;32:67–78.

Kaplan GA, Keil JE. Socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular disease: a review of the literature. Circulation. 1993;88:1973–1998.

Department of Health and Human Services. US Public Health Services. Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. 2000, May. Available at: http://www2.nidcr.nih.gov/sgr/ sgrohweb/welcome.htm.

Wang HY, Petersen PE, Bian JY, Zhang BX. The second national survey of oral health status of children and adults in China. Int Dent J. 2002;52:283–290.

Kuppuswamy B. Manual of Socioeconomic Status Scale (Urban). Delhi: Manasayan; 1981.

Sharma R. Provision of an online tool for real-time updating of the Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale. Indian J Pediatr. 2014;81:101.

Hamasha AA, Warren JJ, Levy SM, Broffitt B, Kanellis MJ. Oral health behaviors of children in low and high socioeconomic status families. Pediatr Dent. 2006;28:310–315.

Sharma R. Online interactive calculator for real-time update of the Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale. Available from: http://www.scaleupdate.weebly.com Accessed 04.06.13.

World Health Organization. Oral Health Surveys – Basic Methods. 5th ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013In: http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/PCA/ PCA_Highlights/pca_highlights_file/India/Chapter-1.pdf.

http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/PCA/ PCA_Highlights/pca_highlights_file/India/Chapter-1.pdf.

Government of India. Census India. Available from: http://censusindia.gov.in/2011census/censusinfodashboard/stock/ profiles/en/IND004_Chandigarh.pdf Accessed 19.08.13.

Government of India. http://pib.nic.in/archieve/others/2013/ dec/d2013121703.pdf.

Goyal A, Gauba K, Chawla HS, Kaur M, Kapur A. Epidemiology of dental caries in Chandigarh school children and trends over the last 25 years. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2007;25:115–118.

Bratthall D. Estimation of global DMFT for 12-year olds in 2004. Int Dent J. 2005;55:370–372.

da Silveira Moreira R. Epidemiology of dental caries in the world. In: Oral Health Care – Pediatric, Research, Epidemiology and Clinical Practices. 2012. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com.

Samuel SR. Dental education: too many graduates in India. Br Dent J. 2016;220:219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bdj.2016.155.

Sudha P, Bhasin S, Anegundi RT. Prevalence of dental caries among 5-13-year-old children of Mangalore city. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2005;23:74–79.

Chandra Shekar BR, Reddy C. Oral health status in relation to socioeconomic factors among the municipal employees of Mysore city. Indian J Dent Res. 2011;22:410–418.

Marinho VC, Higgins JP, Sheiham A, Logan S. Fluoride toothpastes for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;1:CD002278.

Machry RV, Tuchtenhagen S, Agostini BA, et al. Socioeconomic and psychosocial predictors of dental healthcare use among Brazilian preschool children. BMC Oral Health. 2013;13:60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-683113-60.

Touger-Decker R, van Loveren C. Sugars and dental caries. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:881S–892S.

Raj S, Senjam SS, Singh A. Assessment of health-promoting behavior and lifestyle of adolescents of a north Indian city. Int J Prev Med. 2013;4:1189–1193.

Mobley C, Marshall TA, Milgrom P, Coldwell SE. The contribution of dietary factors to dental caries and disparities in caries. Acad Pediatr. 2009;9:410–414.

Ferraro M, Vieira AR. Explaining gender differences in caries: a multifactorial approach to a multifactorial disease. Int J Dent. 2010;2010:649643. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/ 649643.

Moses J, Rangeeth BN, Gurunathan D. Prevalence of dental caries, socio-economic status and treatment needs among 5 to 15-year-old school going children of Chidambaram. J Clin Diagn Res. 2011;5:146–151.

Lukacs JR, Largaespada LL. Explaining sex differences in dental caries prevalence: saliva, hormones, and ‘‘lifehistory’’ etiologies. Am J Hum Biol. 2006;18:540–555.

Verma H, Aggarwal AK, Rattan V, Mohanty U. Access to public dental care facilities in Chandigarh. Indian J Dent Res. 2012;23:121–126.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.