Evaluation and Comparative Study of Palatal Rugae, Arch Length, and Arch Width with its Predictive Accuracy for Gender Identification


  • Manubhai Patel Dental College & Hospital, Intern, Vadodara, Gujarat, 390011, India
  • Manubhai Patel Dental College & Hospital, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Vadodara, Gujarat, 390011, India


Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate variation in the palatal rugae pattern, maxillary arch length, and maxillary arch width in males and females visiting dental college along with its predictive accuracy in gender differentiation.
Materials and methods: 100 preorthodontic maxillary dental stone casts, including 50 males and 50 females in age range of 18–30 years, were studied for different rugae pattern, arch length, and arch width. Thomas and Kotze classification was adopted for assessing rugae pattern. The arch length was measured by using the Lavelle's method and arch width by measuring intermolar distance. The data were analyzed using independent t-test and discriminant function analysis by SPSS 19 Statistical Package.
Results: The study revealed that females had higher curved and diverging type of rugae while males had higher circular and converging type of rugae, which were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). The arch length and width at all dimensions were higher for males than females, which were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Association between rugae pattern and arch dimension was computed using discriminant function analysis, which permitted gender differentiation in this population with an accuracy of 83%.
Conclusion: The rugae pattern, arch length, and arch width can be used for gender differentiation in the human population. However, further research work on a larger population and use of other methods is necessary to validate its use in forensics science.


Dental arch dimension, Forensic odontology, Intermolar width, Lavelle's method, Rugoscopy

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