Fracture Resistance of Teeth Instrumented by the Self-adjusting File, ProTaper NEXT and WaveOne


  • YMT Dental College & Hospital, Department of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics,, Navi Mumbai, India
  • Dr. D.Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Pad., Navi Mumbai, India
  • Government Dental College & Hospital, Mumbai, Department of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, India
  • YMT Dental College & Hospital, Department of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, Navi Mumbai, India


Aim: The present in-vitro study aimed to compare the fracture resistance of mandibular premolars, obturated after instrumentation by Self-Adjusting File (SAF), ProTaper NEXT (PTN) and WaveOne (WO).

Method: Sixty extracted mandibular premolars were decoronated to obtain the root length of 15 mm. The samples were divided into 4 experimental groups: Group 1 without instrumentation (control), Group 2 instrumented with SAF, Group 3 with PTN (X1 and X2) and Group 4 with WO (primary). Following instrumentation, the samples were obturated by cold lateral compaction technique using gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. A week later, after the sealer was completely set, a vertical load was applied to the specimen's canal until fracture. Statistical analysis was performed.

Results: The mean fracture load exhibited significant difference (p < 0.01) (One-way ANAOVA) between the groups. The Multiple Tukey post hoc tests revealed, the fracture resistance by group 1 showed no statistical difference when compared to group 2 and group 3 (p > 0.05), but a significant difference with group 4 (p < 0.01). Group 2 (SAF) presented a significantly higher fracture resistance when individually compared to group 3 and 4 (PTN and WO) (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: Teeth instrumented by SAF exhibited a better fracture resistance.


Fracture Resistance, Instrumentation, Self-adjusting File, ProTaper NEXT, WaveOne

Subject Discipline


Full Text:


Testori T, Badino M, Castagnola M. Vertical root fractures in endodontically treated teeth: a clinical survey of 36 cases. J Endod. 1993;19:87-91.

Fuss Z, Lustig J, Tamse A. Prevalence of vertical root fractures in extracted endodontically treated teeth. Int Endod J. 1999;32:283-286.

Vire DE. Failure of endodontically treated teeth: classification and evaluation. J Endod. 1991;17:338-342.

Johnson ME, Stewart GP, Nielsen CJ, Hatton JF, Ill A, Minn M. Evaluation of root reinforcement of endodontically treated teeth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2000;90:360-364.

Trope M, Ray HL. Resistance to fracture of endodontically treated roots. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1992;73:99-102.

Uzunoglu E, Aktemur S, Uyanik MO, et al. Effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on root fracture with respect to concentration at different time exposures. J Endod. 2012;38:1110-1113.

Zandbiglari T, Davids H, Schafer E. Influence of instrument taper on the resistance to fracture of endodontically treated roots. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;101:126-131.

Bier CA, Shemesh H, Tanomaru-Filho M, et al. The ability of different nickel-titanium rotary instruments to induce dentinal damage during canal preparation. J Endod. 2009;35:236-238.

Versluis A, Messer HH, Pintado MR. Changes in compaction stress distributions in roots resulting from canal preparation. Int Endod J. 2006;39:931-939.

Ruddle CJ, Machtou P, West JD. The shaping movement: fifthgeneration technology. Dent Today. 2013;32:96-99.

Wu MK, R'Oris A, Barkis D, et al. Prevalence and extent of long oval canals in the apical third. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2000;89:739-743.

Metzger Z, Teperovich E, Zary R, et al. The self-adjusting file (SAF). Part 1: respecting the root canal anatomyda new concept of endodontic files and its implementation. J Endod. 2010;36:679-690.

Yoldas O, Yilmaz S, Atakan G, et al. Dentinal microcrack formation during root canal preparations by different NiTi rotary instruments and the self-adjusting file. J Endod. 2012;38:232-235.

Hin ES, Wu MK, Wesselink PR, et al. Effects of self-adjusting file, Mtwo, and ProTaper on the root canal wall. J Endod. 2013;39:262-264.

Wilcox LR, Roskelley C, Sutton T. The relationship of root canal enlargement to finger-spreader induced vertical root fracture. J Endod. 1997;23:533-534.

Dalat DM, Spangberg LS. Comparison of apical leakage in root canals obturated with various gutta percha techniques using a dye vacuum tracing method. J Endod. 1994;20:315-319.

Lertchirakarn V, Palamara JE, Messer HH. Load and strain during lateral condensation and vertical root fracture. J Endod. 1999;25:99-104.

Saw LH, Messer HH. Root strains associated with different obturation techniques. J Endod. 1995;21:314-320.

Capar ID, Altusoy M, Hakan Arslan, et al. Fracture strength of roots instrumented with self-adjusting file and the protaper rotary systems. J Endod. 2014;40:551-554.

Wu MK, Van Der Sluis LMW, Wesselink PR. Comparison of mandibular premolars and canines with respect to their resistance to vertical root fracture. J Dent. 2004;32: 265-268.

Walton RE, Michelich RJ, Smith GN. The histopathogenesis of vertical root fractures. J Endod. 1984;10:48-56.

Cobankara FK, Ungor M, Belli S. The effect of two different root canal sealers and smear layer on resistance to root fracture. J Endod. 2002;28:606-609.

Liu R, Hou BX, Wesselink PR, et al. The incidence of root microcracks caused by 3 different single-file systems versus the ProTaper System. J Endod. 2013;39:1054-1056.

Adorno CG, Yoshioka T, Jindan P, et al. The effect of endodontic procedures on apical crack initiation and propagation ex vivo. Int Endod J. 2013;46:763-768.

Bu¨ rklein S, Tsotsis P, Sch€afer E. Incidence of dentinal defects after root canal preparation: reciprocating versus rotary instrumentation. J Endod. 2013;39:501-504.

Ghoneim AG, Lutfy RA, Sabet NE, Fayyad DM. Resistance to fracture of roots obturated with novel canal-filling systems. J Endod. 2011;37:1590-1592.

Karapinar Kazandag M, Sunay H, Tanalp J, Bayirli G. Fracture resistance of roots using different canal filling systems. Int Endod J. 2009;42:705-710.

Lee KW, Williams MC, Camps JJ, Pashley DH. Adhesion of endodontic sealers to dentin and gutta-percha. J Endod. 2002;28:684-688.

Sousa-Neto MD, Marchesan MA, Pecora JD, et al. Effect of Er:YAG laser on adhesion of root canal sealers. J Endod. 2002;28:185-187.

Mamootil K, Messer HH. Penetration of dentinal tubules by endodontic sealer cements in extracted teeth and in vivo. Int Endod J. 2007;40:873-881.


  • There are currently no refbacks.