Determination of Holdaway Soft Tissue Norms for the North Indian Population Based on Panel Perception of Facial Esthetics


  • Institute of Dental Sciences, Bareilly, Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 243006, India
  • Private Practitioner, Meerut, India
  • Institute of Dental Sciences, Bareilly, Department of Periodontics, India


Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine Holdaway soft tissue norms for the North Indian population based on panel perception of facial esthetics.

Material and method: 90 individuals (45 males and 45 females) from the North Indian population with normal anteroposterior and vertical skeletal relationships on analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs were selected for the study. The landmarks were located according to the definitions of Holdaway. Ten linear and two angular measurements were analysed on each radiograph. For each variable, the arithmetic mean and standard deviation were calculated. For statistical evaluation, an independent-samples t test was performed.

Results: Except for the measurements of soft tissue chin thickness, H angle and nose prominence all soft tissue measurements were similar to Holdaway norms. For upper lip thickness, soft tissue chin thickness, skeletal profile convexity and basic upper lip thickness measurements, statistically significant sex differences were determined.

Conclusions: Based on this study, new soft tissue norms are established for orthodontic and surgical diagnosis and treatment planning.


Soft Tissue Profile, Ethnic Difference, Holdaway Soft Tissue Norms, Cephalometric Analysis

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