Variation of Cranial Base Morphology among Different Sagittal Skeletal Malocclusion – A Cephalometric Study in Nepalese Population


  • Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Dhulikhel, Nepal
  • Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Dhulikhel, Nepal
  • Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Dhulikhel, Nepal


Introduction: Variation of cranial base morphology among different sagittal skeletal malocclusion has been evaluated previously by many studies. However, the findings of these studies conducted in different population differ due to racial/ ethnic differences. Objective: To obtain measurement data for various cranial base parameters and evaluate the variation in cranial base morphology among different sagittal skeletal malocclusion in Nepalese population. Materials and Methods: Manual tracing and measurement of 4 different cranial base parameters [linear- Anterior Cranial Base Length (ACBL), Posterior Cranial Base Length (PCBL) and Total Cranial Base Length (TCBL); angular - Cranial Base Angle (CBA)] were done on 90 pretreatment lateral cephalogram of healthy adult orthodontic patients. Study samples were matched for age and were equally distributed among three different sagittal skeletal malocclusion group using ANB angle. [skeletal Class I: 30, skeletal Class II: 30 and skeletal Class III: 30]. Analysis Of Variances [ANOVA] followed by Least Significant Difference (LSD) post hoc test was used to determine difference in cranial base measurements among three sagittal skeletal group. Results: While comparing the cranial base parameters among different sagittal skeletal class, mean value for all the parameters reduced systematically from skeletal Class II, via skeletal Class I, to skeletal Class III group. However, a statistically significant difference was found only for TCBL between skeletal Class II and skeletal Class III (p < 0.01). Conclusions: A significant difference in TCBL among different sagittal skeletal malocclusion was observed in Nepalese adults.


Cranial Base Morphology, Sagittal Skeletal Malocclusion, Nepalese Population

Subject Discipline


Full Text:


Dhopatkar A, Bhatia S, Rock P. An investigation into the relationship between the cranial base angle and malocclusion. Angle Orthod. 2002;72:456–463.

Hopkin GB, Houston WJB, James GA. The cranial base as an aetiological factor in malocclusion. Angle Orthod. 1968;38:250–255

Dibbets JM. Morphological associations between the angle classes. Eur J Orthod. 1996;18:111–118.

Chin A, Perry S, Liao C, Yang Y. The relationship between the cranial base and jaw base in a Chinese population. Head Face Med. 2014;10:31–38.

Kamak H, Çatalbas B, Senel B. Cranial base features between sagittal skeletal malocclusions in Anatolian Turkish adults: Is there a difference. J Orthod Res. 2013;1:52–56.

Breh R, Kamat NV. Cranial base morphology determining sagittal and vertical facial relation: A cross sectional study. Int J Sci Res. 2017;6:1823–1826.

Bishara SE. Ortodontia. São Paulo: Ed. Santos; 2004.

Thiesen G, Pletsch G, Zastrow MD, do Valle CV, do Valle-Corotti KM, Patel MP, Conti PC. Comparative analysis of the anterior and posterior length and deflection angle of the cranial base, in individuals with facial Pattern I, II and III. Dent Press J Orthod. 2013;18:69–75.

Currie K, Sawchuk D, Saltaji H, Oh H, Flores-Mir C, Lagravere M. Posterior cranial base natural growth and development: A systematic review. Angle Orthod. 2017;87:897–910.

Chang ZC, Hu FC, Lai E, Yao CC, Chen MH, Chen YJ. Landmark identification errors on cone-beam computed tomography-derived cephalograms and conventional digital cephalograms. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011;140:e289–e297.

Gong A, Li J, Wang Z, Li Y, Hu F, Li Q, Miao D, Wang L. Cranial base characteristics in anteroposterior malocclusions: A meta-analysis. Angle Orthod. 2016;86:668–680.

Bjork A. Cranial base development. Am J Orthod. 1955;41: 198–225.


  • There are currently no refbacks.