Human Resources in Information Technology: Best Practices for Talent Retention in High-Performing Information Technology Organizations in India
Keywords:HR Practices, India, IT Organizations, Qualitative Study, Talent Management
AbstractAgainst the backdrop of the key issue of ‘talent retention' that IT organizations increasingly experience in today's competitive business environment, the authors motivated by the desire to get deeper insights on how IT organizations manage their IT professionals in general and software engineers in particular, embarked upon a qualitative field study for this research endeavor. This approach was adopted to identify Human Resource (HR) practices that were most widely operationalized by IT organizations to curb the issue of voluntary turnover among software engineers by augmenting favorable employee attitudes. Accordingly, the findings of this study offer in-depth insights on the 11 HR practices and the key attributes and themes that organizations take into consideration while designing and implementing these HR practices. The findings further offer implications for managers to operationalize these HR practices for effective talent management.
Major DA, Davis DD, Germano LM, Fletcher TD, Sanchez"Hucles J, Mann J. Managing human resources in information technology: Best practices of high performing supervisors. Human Resource Management. 2007; 46(3):411–27. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20171
Lim VKG, Teo TSH. Occupational stress and IT personnel in Singapore: Factorial dimensions and differential effects. International Journal of Information Management. 1999; 19:277–91. https:// doi.org/10.1016/S0268-4012(99)00027-4
Rajeswari KS, Anantharaman RN. Development of an instrument to measure stress among software professionals: Factor analytic study. Proceedings of the 2003 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computer Personnel Research, Philadelphia, PA; 2003. p. 34–43. https://doi.org/10.1145/761849.761855
Srirangam Ramaprasad B, Lakshminarayanan S, Pai YP. The relationship between developmental HRM practices and voluntary intention to leave among IT professionals in India: The mediating role of affective commitment. Industrial and Commercial Training. 2018; 50(6):285–304. https:// doi.org/10.1108/ICT-01-2018-0001
Glen P. Leading geeks: How to manage and lead people who deliver technology. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2003.
Boselie P, Dietz G, Boon C. Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research. Human Resource Management Journal. 2005; 15(3):67–94. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2005.tb00154.x
Paauwe J. HRM and performance: Achievements, methodological issues and prospects. Journal of Management Studies. 2009; 46(1):129–42. https:// doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2008.00809.x
Khilji SE, Wang X. ‘Intended' and ‘implemented' HRM: The missing linchpin in strategic human resource management research. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 2006; 17(7):1171–89. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 09585190600756384
Johnson B, Christensen L. Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Approaches. Boston, MA: Pearson; 2004.
Johnson B, Turner LA. Data collection strategies in mixed methods research. A. Tashakkori, and C. Teddlie (Eds.). Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioural Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2003. p. 297–319.
Paul AK, Anantharaman RN. Influence of HRM practices on organizational commitment: A study among software professionals in India. Human Resource Development Quarterly. 2004; 15(1):77– 88. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.1088
Mitchell R, Obeidat S, Bray M. The effect of strategic human resource management on organizational performance: The mediating role of high"performance human resource practices. Human Resource Management. 2013; 52(6):899–921. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21587
Massingham PR, Tam L. The relationship between human capital, value creation and employee reward. Journal of Intellectual Capital. 2015; 16(2):390–418. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIC-06-2014-0075
Stets JE, Burke PJ. Identity theory and social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly. 2000; 63(3):224–37. https://doi.org/10.2307/2695870
Chao GT. Organizational socialization: Background, basics and a blueprint for adjustment at work. S. W. J. Kozlowski (Ed.), Oxford Library of Psychology. The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Psychology. Vol. 1. New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press; 2012. p. 579–614. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/ 9780199928309.013.0018
Schein EH. Organizational socialization and the profession of management. Organizational Influence Processes. 2003; 36(3):283–94.
Saks AM, Ashforth BE. A longitudinal investigation of the relationships between job information sources, applicant perceptions of fit and work outcomes. Personnel Psychology. 1997; 50(2):395–426. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1997.tb00913.x
Gruman,JA, Saks AM. Organizational socialization and newcomers' psychological capital and well-being. Bakker A. B (ed.). Advances in Positive Organizational Psychology Emerald Group Publishing Limited. 2013. p. 211–36. https://doi.org/10.1108/S2046-410X(2013)0000001012
Cohen DJ. HR past, present and future: A call for consistent practices and a focus on competencies.
Human Resource Management Review. 2015; 25(2):205–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2015.01.006
Harel G, Tzafrir S, Baruch Y. Achieving organizational effectiveness through promotion of women into managerial positions: HRM practice focus. International Journal of Human Resource Management. 2003; 14(2):247–63. https://doi.org/10.1080/0958519021000029108
Gardner TM, Wright PM, Moynihan LM. The impact of motivation, empowerment and skill"enhancing practices on aggregate voluntary turnover: The mediating effect of collective affective commitment. Personnel Psychology. 2011; 64(2):315–50. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2011.01212.x
Kanfer R, Chen G, Pritchard RD. The three C's of work motivation: Content, context and change. New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group; 2008. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203809501
Steger MF, Dik BJ. Work as meaning: Individual and organizational benefits of engaging in meaningful work. P. A. Linley, S. Harrington, and N. Garcea (Eds.), Oxford Library of Psychology. Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology and Work. New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press; 2010. p. 131–42. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/ 9780195335446.013.0011
Jurkiewicz CL, Giacalone RA. A values framework for measuring the impact of workplace spirituality on organizational performance. Journal of Business Ethics. 2004; 49(2):129–42. https://doi.org/10.1023/ B:BUSI.0000015843.22195.b9
Milliman J, Czaplewski,AJ, Ferguson J. Workplace spirituality and employee work attitudes: An exploratory empirical assessment. Journal of Organizational Change Management. 2003; 16(4):426–47. https://doi.org/10.1108/ 09534810310484172
Colvin AJS, Batt R, Keefe J. The impact of employee voice and compliance mechanisms on absenteeism, discipline and turnover. Working Paper (WP01-04). Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University; 2005.
Subramony M. A meta"analytic investigation of the relationship between HRM bundles and firm performance. Human Resource Management. 2009; 48(5):745–68. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20315
Gagné M, Deci EL. Self"determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 2005; 26(4):331–62. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.322
Cappelen AW, Nielsen UH, Tungodden B, Tyran JR, Wengstrom E. Fairness is intuitive. Experimental Economics. 2016; 19(4):727–40. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10683-015-9463-y
Cerasoli CP, Nicklin JM, Ford MT. Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: A 40-year meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin. 2014; 140(4):980–1008. PMid: 24491020. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035661
Mathieu JE, Gilson LL, Ruddy TM. Empowerment and team effectiveness: An empirical test of an integrated model. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2006; 91(1):97–108. PMid: 16435941. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.1.97
Bandura A. The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 1986; 4(3):359–73. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.19188.8.131.529
Bakker AB, Demerouti E. The job demandsresources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 2007; 22(3):309–28. https:// doi.org/10.1108/02683940710733115