An Analysis of Inter-relationship between Maternal Mortality and Development in Low Human Development Countries


Affiliations

  • University of Mysore, Department of Economics, Sir M.V. PG Centre, Mandya, Karnataka, 571402, India

Abstract

This paper is an attempt to examine the inter-relationship between Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) with human and economic development in 15 Low Human Development (LHD) countries. The study is purely based on secondary sources of data. The correlation, regression, normality test and factor analysis have been used to interpret the data. It has found from the bi-variate correlation that in LHD countries, only Life Expectancy at Birth (LEB) has significant relationship with Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR), and none of other parameters have significant association with MMR. It has found from the factor and regression analysis that GDP per capita and gender inequality have significantly determined the level of MMR. Accordingly, in LHD countries still income has major role in determination of MMR and gender issues also play considerable role in determination of MMR. As it has been identified, income is a necessary condition for reduction of MMR. Therefore, in LHD countries, there is a need to increase income at foster rate in order to fight against high level of MMR. And there is also need to reduce the gender inequality to reduce the MMR.


Keywords

Maternal Mortality, Human Development, Gender, Life Expectancy, Health, Education and Income

Full Text:

References

L. (2016). Global, regional, and national levels and trends in maternal mortality between 1990 and 2015, with scenario-based projections to 2030: A systematic analysis by the UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group. Lancet, 387, 462-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0140-6736(15)00838-7

David M. Bishai, R. C., & Schweitzer, J. (2016). Factors Contributing to Maternal and Child Mortality Reductions in 146 Low- and Middle-Income Countries between 1990 and 2010. PLOS, 45-56.

Ensor, T, C. S., & W.J., G. (2010). The impact of economic recession on maternal and infant mortality: Lessons from history. BMC Public Health, 45–67. https:// doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-10-727. PMid:21106089 PMCid:PMC3002333

Jeffery, P. & Jeffery, R. (2010). Only when the boat has started sinking: A maternal death in rural north India.

Social Science & Medicine, 71, 1711-1718. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.05.002. PMid:20561728 PMCid:PMC2981873

Frank Chirowa, S. A., & Van, M. (2013). Gender Inequality, Health Expenditure and Maternal Mortality in SubSaharan SubSaharan. Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med., 5(1): 471.

Juan Ignacio Ruiz, K. N., & Federico Popoff, A. I. (2015). Inequality as a Powerful Predictor of Infant and Maternal Mortality Around The World. PLoS One, 10(10): e0140796.

Karmbor-Ballah, E., G., Fallah, M., P., Silverstein, J., B., Gilbert, H., N., Desai, I., K., Mukherjee, J., S., & et al.(2019). Maternal mortality and the metempsychosis of user fees in Liberia: A mixed-methods analysis. Scientific African, 3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2019.e00050

Khalid, A., & Iqbal, M. (2015). Women health in Pakistan: An analysis of millennium development goals (MDGS) through locally constructed indices. JRSP, 52(2).

Kim, J., I., & Gukbin. (2014). Labor force participation and secondary education of Gender Inequality Index (GII) associated with Healthy Life Expectancy (HLE) at birth. International Journal for Equity in Health, 78-90. https:// doi.org/10.1186/s12939-014-0106-2. PMid:25403614 PMCid:PMC4240826

Lee, K-s., Park, S-c., Khoshnood, B., Hsieh, H., L., & Mittendorf, R. (1997). Human development index as a predictor of infant and maternal mortality rates. National Institutes of Health (J Pediatr), 131(3), 430-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3476(97)80070-4

Ndola Prata, P. P., & Gerdts, C. E. (2010). Maternal Mortality in Developing Countries: Challenges in Scaling -Up Priority Interventions. Women's Health, 6(2), 311-327.

Piane, G., M. (2014). Maternal mortality correlates by nation. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4, 751-759. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpm.2014.410085

Robert L Cohen, Y. N., & Adam, T. (2014). Country Progress Towards The Millennium Development Goals: Adjusting for Socio-Economic Factors Reveals Greater Progress and New challenges. Globalization and Health, 10:67.

Rana, M., J., Gautam, A., Golia, S., Uttamachary, Reja, T., Nanda, P. Datta, N., Verma, R. (2019). Planning of births and maternal, child health, and nutritional outcomes: Recent evidence from India, Public Health, 169, 14-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2018.11.019. PMid:30772525. PMCid:PMC6483972

Seung-Ah Choe, S.-i. C., & Kim, H. (2016). Gender Gap Matters in Maternal Mortality in Low and Lower-MiddleIncome Countries: A Study of the Global Gender Gap Index. Global Public Health, 1-12.

Shyama Kuruvilla, J. S., & Sadia. (2014). Success Factors for Reducing Maternal and Child Mortality. WHO, 89-96.

Sima Sajedinejad, R. M., & Mohammad, K. (2015). Maternal Mortality: A Crosssectional Study in Global Health. Global Health, 11: 4.

Tim Ensor, S. C., & Fitzmaurice, A. (2010). The Impact of Economic Recession on Maternal and Infant Mortality: Lessons from History. BMC Public Health, 45-67.

Vijayan K. Pillai, A. M., & FangHsun. (2013). Maternal Mortality and Female Literacy Rates in Developing Countries during 1970-2000: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis. International Journal of Population Research, 2013 (2013): 11.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.