A Study on Impact of Generational Affiliation on Psychological Contract

Jump To References Section


  • Professor, Presidency College, Bengaluru – 560024, Karnataka ,IN
  • Research Scholar, Canara Bank School of Management, Bengaluru – 560048, Karnataka ,IN




Generational Affiliation, Obligations, Psychological Contract


In recent years, human resource practitioners focused much on generational gap subsists among employees, which is creating considerable challenges to employers in effectually managing the diversified work force. The various mutual obligations that are unwritten exist between the employer and the employee in an organization is referred to as Psychological Contract. This obligation varies among generations. Various theories of psychological contract showed that because of the various unfolds of the process of the junctures of employment gives rise to different shapes to the psychological contract. (Rousseau and Parks 1993).

The modern organization in recent times struggling to have a productive workforce over their competitors in the market. In order to accomplish that it is crucial to understand the mutual implied obligations and fulfil the same. Employees revert by expressing high intention to leave because of low organizational commitment, unhappy with the job, low citizenship behavior if employer fails to fulfil these unwritten requests.

It is observed that limited research has been done, which explores the correlation among psychological contract and different generations. And also understanding the obligations of employer to different generation is becoming obligatory. Considering this as a research gap, the present paper is trying to bridge this gap by studying the influence of generations over psychological contract.

The objective in this paper is to understand the relationship among generation and its affiliation on psychological contract. The paper is both explorative and descriptive in nature. The sample comprises employees of IT industries. A survey is proposed to conduct on these employees using questionnaire method.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




How to Cite

Venkataraman, R., & Mamatha, D. (2020). A Study on Impact of Generational Affiliation on Psychological Contract. SDMIMD Journal of Management, 10(2), 9–16. https://doi.org/10.18311/sdmimd/2019/24228



Research Papers



Agarwal, U. A., Bhargava, S. (2013). Effects of psychological contract breach on organizational outcomes: Moderating role of tenure and educational levels- vikalpa, 38(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/0256090920130102

Bal, P. M., De Cooman, R. & Mol, S. T. (2013). Dynamics of psychological contracts with work engagement and turnover intention: The influence of organizational tenure.

Ballou, N. S. (2013). The effects of psychological contract breach on job outcomes, San Jose State University.

Beehr, T. A. (1986). The process of retirement: A review and recommendation for future investigation.

Personnel Psychology, 39, 31–55. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1986.tb00573.x

Buttner, H., Lowe, K. B., Billings-Harris, L. (2010). The impact of diversity promise fulfillment on professionals of Color Outcomes in the USA. Journal of Business Ethics, 91, 501–518. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-0090096-y

Dang, V. H. (2015). A mixed method approach enabling the triangulation technique: Case study in Vietnam. World Journal of Social Science, 2(2). https://doi.org/10.5430/ wjss.v2n2p1

Deepthi, U., Baral, R. (2013). Psychological contract fulfilment and its impact on employees' job attitudes: Does generations make any difference. 3rd Biennial Conference of the Indian Academy of Management (IAM).

Gamage, P. N. & Thisera, T. J. R. (2012). Exploring generational differences and contents of psychological contract.

George, Christeen. (2011). The Psychological Contract, managing and Developing professional Groups. Tata McGraw-Hill Edition.

Johansen, S. M. & von Treuer, K. (2012). An examination of psychological contracts, careerism and intention to leave. Career Development International, 17(5), 475-494. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620431211269711

Jose, M. (2008). A study of the Impact of psychological contract on organizational commitment among temporary and permanent employees in organizations. Journal of Contemporary Research in Management.

Joshy, L. M. & Srilatha (2010). Psychological contract violation and its impact on intention to quit : A study of employees of public sector and old generation private sector banks in India. Asian Journal of Management Research.

Kogan, I. (2011). New immigrants - old disadvantage patterns? Labour market integration of recent immigrants into Germany. International Migration, 49(1), 91–117. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00609.x

Liao, S. (2013). Psychological contract between teacher and student improves teaching process in the network courses of collage, a study based on the network course of psychology in Shaoguan University, International Conference on Education Technology and Management Science (ICETMS 2013), 885–887. https://doi.org/10.2991/icetms.2013.141

Moore, T. (2014). The impact of psychological contract fulfilment on employee engagement in the millennial generation: The moderating effects of generational affiliation, Georgia State University Scholar Works at Georgia State University.

Nutakki, L. P. & Reddy, M. S., Salvarani, B. (2015). Psychological contract in the Indian higher education sector. Academic Journal Article IUP Journal of Soft Skills.

Pant, J. J. & Vijaya, V. (2015). Multiple Psychological Contracts and Diversity. SDMIMD Journal of Management, 6(1), 24-39.

Patrick, H., A. (2008). Psychological contract and employment relationship. Rogozinska-Pawetczyk, Anna. (2014). Impact and Effects of Relational and Transactional Psychological Contract, pp. 41-43.

Rousseau. (1989). Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 2, 121–139. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01384942

Rousseau, & Parks. (1993). The contracts of individuals and organisations. In Cummings, L., L., & Staw, B., M., (Eds.), Research in organizational behaviour (1-43). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Rousseau, D., M. (1995). Psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements. London, UK: Sage.

Sander, P. (2013). Researching our students for more effective university teaching. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 5-3(1), 113-130.

Turnley, W. H. & Feldman, D. C. (2000). Re-examining the effects of psychological contract violations: unmet expectations and job dissatisfaction as mediators. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 25-42. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(200002)21: 1<25::AIDJOB2> 3.0.CO;2-Z

Zhang, M. (2015). Study on the relativity between psychological contract and performance of the bookstore staff. 3rd International Conference on Mechatronics, Robotics and Automation, 325–329. https://doi.org/10.2991/icmra-15.2015.65

Zhou, J., Plaisent, M., Zheng, L., Bernard, P. (2014). Psychological contract, organizational commitment and work satisfaction: Survey of researchers in Chinese state owned engineering institutions. Journal of Social Sciences, 2, 217-225. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2014.29037

Zemke, R., Raines, C. & Filipczak, B. (1999). Generations at work: Managing the clash of veterans, boomers, Xers, and nexters in your workplace. New York: AMACOM.