Impact of Cu and Hg on Biochemical Parameters of Bivalve, <i>Villorita cyprinoides</i>

Authors

  • Ranjusha Nair School of Environmental Studies, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi – 682022, Ernakulam, Kerala
  • Rajathy Sivalingam School of Environmental Studies, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi – 682022, Ernakulam, Kerala

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18311/ti/2020/v27i3&4/25917

Keywords:

Biochemistry, Hepatopancrease, Heavy Metals, Synergistic effect

Abstract

Heavy metal pollution is a growing environmental problem in marine coastal waters; for this reason the monitoring of water pollution needs the availability of test-species able to furnish reliable and cheap results. From this point of view, bivalves are important test organisms owing to their wide distribution and for their key-position within the food web. As Villorita cyprinoides is a promising target-species in ecotoxicology, in this study the toxicity of different concentrations of two heavy metals (copper and mercury) was evaluated, 4 mg/l and 9 mg/l of Cu were taken. Treatments were performed after 10 and 20 days of exposure on adult Villorita cyprinoides. The biochemistry of the animals was evaluated. There was marked decrease observed in the stored glycogen level in the hepatopancrease of the organism, 35.77 mg gm-1 after 20 days with a concentration of 4 ppm and 30.57 at 9 ppm after 20 days exposure to Cu. There was a significant decrease in the level of protein content in the foot and hepatopancrease in presence of Cu. The protein content of the foot, after 20 days, in 4 ppm and 9 ppm was 15.62 and 10.25 mg/l respectively. The level of protein decreased to 13.37 and 14.12 mg gm-1 respectively in the hepatopancrease after 20 days of exposure to 4 ppm and 9 ppm. The results showed that mercury (0.1 and 0.3 mg/l) was toxic for Villorita cyprinoides. Animals exposed to Hg alone as well as in combination with Cu and Hg exhibited high mortality rate. The synergistic effect of the metals was more lethal. The study shows that the prolonged exposure of the heavy metals resulted in anoxic condition. The stress condition resulted in the utilization of stored energy.

References

Andhale AV. Effect of nickel induced biochemical alterations in fresh water bivalve Lamellidens marginalis. J Ecobiotechnol. 2011; 3:18–24. http://updatepublishing.com/ journal/index.php/jebt/article/view/149

Bellotto VR, Miekeley N. Trace metals in mussel shells and corresponding soft tissue samples: A validation experiment for the use of Perna shells in pollution monitoring. Anal Bio Anal Chem. 2007; 389:769–76. PMid: 17619864. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s00216-007-1420-y

Bhavan SP, Geraldine P. Carbaryl induced alterations in biochemical metabolism of the prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii. J Environ Biol. 2002; 23-2:157–62. PMID 12602852.

Chaudhari T, Patil P, Rao K, Subhash M. Effect of sodium pentachlorophenate on protein metabolism of the gastropod, Indoplanorbis exustus. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology. 1998; 18(2):87–90. https://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/112

Dhote S, Varghese B, Mishra SM. Impact on idol immersion on water quality of Twin Lakes of Bhopal. Indian J Environ Porte. 2001; 21:998–1005..

Durairaj S, Selvarajan VR. Influence of quinolphos, an organo phosphorus pesticide on the biochemical constituents of tissue of fish Oreochronus mossambicus. J Environ Biol. 1992; 13:181–5

Ferrando MD, Andrew-Moliner. The effect of time on physiological changes in eel, Anguilla anguilla induced by Lindane. Comparative Biochemistry and physiology. Comp Pharmacol Toxicol. 1991; 100(1-2): 95–8. PMID: 1713818. https://doi.org/10.1016/0742-8413(91)90130-L

Ghosh R, Shrotri RV. Blood glucose and tissue glycogen interrelationship in Scylla serrata (Forskal) chronically exposed to Thiodan. J Environ Biol. 1992; 13:233–7.

Gokhale AA, Mane UH. Acute fluoride toxicity to the freshwater bivalve mollusc, Lamellidens marginalis (Lamarck). Indian J Inviron Zool Aqua Biol. 1990; 2:11–4.

Gupta K, Sharma A. Macro invertebrates as indicators of pollution. J Environ Biol. 2005; 26:205–11.

Hawk PB, Oser BL. Hawk's physiological chemistry. 14th Edn. McGraw-Hill, New York. Heath, A.B. and A.W. Pritchard: Effects of severe hypoxia on carbohydrate energy stores and metabolism in two species of freshwater fish. Physiol Zool. 1965; 88:325. https://doi.org/10.1086/physzool.38.4.30152409

Kumar AA, Dipu S, Sobha V. Seasonal variation of heavy metals in cochin estuary and adjoining Periyar and Muvattupuzha Rivers, Kerala, India. Global J Environ Res. 2011; 5(1):15–20.

Prahash NT, Rao KSJ. Modulations in antioxidant enzymes in different tissues of marine bivalve Perna viridis during heavy metal exposure. Mol Cell Biochem. 1995; 146:107–13. PMid: 7565639. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/BF00944602

Lowry OH, Rosenbrough NJ, Farr AZL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biological Chem. 1951; 193:265–75.

Rodriguez-Ariza A, Alhama J, Diaz-Mendez et. al. Content of 8-oxod G in chromosomal DNA of Sparatus aurata fish as a biomarker of oxidative stress and environmental pollution. Mutat Res. 1999; 438:97–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1383-5718(98)00156-9

Sathyanathan Î’, Nair SÎœ, Chacko J, Nambisan ΡΔΚ. Sublethal effects of copper and mercury on some biochemical constituents of the estuarine clam Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis (Hanley). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1988; 40:510–6. PMid: 3370345. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01688374

Seifter S, Dayton S, Novic B, Muntwyler E. The estimation of glycogen with the Anthrone reagent Arch Biochem 1950; 25:191–200.

Viarengo A. Biochemical effects of trace metals. Mar Poll Bull. 1985; 16:153–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-326X(85)90006-2

Published

2022-08-12

How to Cite

Nair, R., & Sivalingam, R. (2022). Impact of Cu and Hg on Biochemical Parameters of Bivalve, <i>Villorita cyprinoides</i>. Toxicology International, 27(3&amp;4), 168–173. https://doi.org/10.18311/ti/2020/v27i3&4/25917

Issue

Section

Research Articles