Recognition and Assessment of Antidotal Effects of Diphenhydramine against Acute Carbaryl Insecticide Poisoning in a Chick Model


  • Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Duhok, Duhok
  • Department of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul



Acetylcholinesterase, Anticholinesterase, Atropine, Carbaryl, Cholinergic Toxidrome, Diphenhydramine


Diphenhydramine antagonizes poisoning produced by cholinesterase (ChE) inhibiting insecticides. This study examines the effects of diphenhydramine against acute poisoning induced by the carbamate insecticide carbaryl in a chick model. The effects of diphenhydramine on the 24 h median Lethal Dose (LD50), and acute toxicity of carbaryl were assessed in chicks (7-15 days old). The plasma and whole brain ChE activities were measured electrometrically in vitro and in vivo. Diphenhydramine at 10mg/Kg Body wt. administered intramuscularly 15 min before carbaryl dosing increased the oral LD50 value of carbaryl (207 mg/Kg Body wt.) by 62%. Carbaryl at 250 mg/Kg Body wt. has orally produced toxidrome of cholinergic poisoning with 100% lethality in 24 h. Diphenhydramine (10mg/ Kg Body wt.) used 15 min before carbaryl (250mg/Kg Body wt., orally) was the most effective dose (vs 5 and 20mg/Kg Body wt.) in delaying carbaryl-toxicity and increasing survivals in chicks. The intramuscular median effective dose (ED50) of diphenhydramine which prevented 24 h carbaryl-death in chicks was 8.6mg/ Kg Body wt. The antidotal response to diphenhydramine was similar to that of the standard antidote atropine sulfate. Diphenhydramine at 10mg/Kg Body wt., given immediately after carbaryl (200mg/Kg Body wt.), reduced the percentages of plasma and whole brain ChE inhibitions in vivo by 12- and 13%, respectively. Carbaryl (10μmol/L) in vitro inhibited ChE activities in the plasma and brain by 53 and 77%, respectively; these inhibitions were reduced by 13- and 14%, respectively, when diphenhydramine (10μmol/L) was added to in vitro reactions. Diphenhydramine exerted antidotal action against a model of acute and lethal carbaryl intoxication in chicks.


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How to Cite

Mohammed, A. A., & Mohammad, F. K. (2022). Recognition and Assessment of Antidotal Effects of Diphenhydramine against Acute Carbaryl Insecticide Poisoning in a Chick Model. Toxicology International, 29(3), 339–352.



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