Virulence and recovery of a cold tolerant Kashmir isolate of EPN, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (SKUASTK-EPN-Hr 01) with respect to white grub, Heteronychus sp. in Srinagar (J and K)


  • Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Division of Entomology, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, 190 025, India
  • University of Kashmir, Department of Zoology, Srinagar, (J and K), India


The virulence of a cold tolerant indigenous Kashmir isolate of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (SKUASTK-EPN-Hr 01) tested against 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars of white grub, Heteronychus sp. @ 0, 100, 150, 200, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 IJs/grub using Petri dish bioassay method, revealed large differences in the virulence of H. bacteriophora towards the different stages of Heteronychus sp. However, there was a positive correlation between nematode concentration and the insect mortality. The 3rd instar grubs succumbed to nematode infection later (LT50 = 6.47 days at 250 IJs/grub) than the grubs of 2nd (LT50 = 3.23 days at 250 IJs/grub) and 1st instars (LT50 = 2.44 days at 250 IJs/grub). When grubs were in 1st instar, relatively shorter exposure periods and low nematode concentrations (LC50 = 126.72 IJs/grub at 5 DAE) were needed for achieving lethal nematode infections as compared to 2nd (LC50 = 176.02 IJs/grub at 5 DAE) and 3rd (LC50 = 456.35 IJs/grub at 5 DAE) instar grubs where longer exposure periods and high nematode concentrations were required. The recovery of nematode infective juveniles per grub ranged from 47.47-51.32 x 103, 89.19-92.85 x 103 and 260.36-263.95 x 103 IJs in 1st, 2nd and 3rd larval instars of Heteronychus sp., respectively. The total time period between the grub mortality and the initiation of emergence and between grub mortality and the cessation of emergence of nematode infective juveniles from the cadavers ranged from 6-8, 14-16 and 22-24 days, and 21-26, 31-36 and 42-45 days in case of 1st, 2nd and 3rd larval instars of white grub, Heteronychus sp., respectively.


Concentration, mortality response, nematode recovery, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Heteronychus sp.

Subject Discipline

Entomolgy and Nematology

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