A Decentralized Marketing Model for the Online Accommodation Rental Market

Jump To References Section


  • Professor, Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics, Ulster University, Belfast Campus, BT15 1ED ,IE
  • Lecturer, Department of Computing and Mathematics, Stirling University, Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland ,GB
  • PhD. Research Scholar, Department of Computer Sciences, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, 14000 ,MA




Business Model, Decentralized Marketing, Online Accommodation,

JEL classification: D21, D26, D44, D47, L22, M31, O31, Z32, Z33


This paper presents an infrastructure redesign of the online accommodation rental marketing model. The decentralized marketplace it proposes represents a significant Business Model Innovation (BMI) and a new normative marketing tool. We suggest it has the potential to be disruptive from an International Marketing (IM) perspective, shifting the focus from owners as agents, to a shared one with renters and agents. This is supportive of the paradigm where marketing is focused on facilitating and maintaining relationships. Using code that we developed, we illustrate how a decentralized application (dAirBnB) can promote disintermediation and can be built to optimize price discovery. Utilizing block chain technology, we show how trust originates from the distributed consensus enforced by a network of peers. This trusted interaction is facilitated between untrusted parties over the internet, thereby changing the marketing relationship. In this respect, the application and the business model are inextricably linked. Enabled by the technology, we propose a monetization of reputation, which introduces the concept of good behaviour as an asset in a marketing context. We explore the implications of this for both BMI and IM. Our approach would increase the quality and quantity of information in online rentals, both major dimensions of marketing advantage. The dominant position of AirBnB represents a limitation on the implementation of our approach and would be an area for policy makers to focus on.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




How to Cite

Broby, D., Bracciali, A., & Lamssaoui, S. (2022). A Decentralized Marketing Model for the Online Accommodation Rental Market. Journal of Business Thought, 13, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.18311/jbt/2022/30650
Received 2022-07-11
Accepted 2022-07-14
Published 2022-09-02



Resnick P, Zeckhauser R, Swanson J, Lockwood K. The value of reputation on eBay: A controlled experiment. Experimental Economics. 2006; 9(2):79-101. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10683-006-4309-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10683-006-4309-2

Rochet, J-C. and Tirole J. Platform competition in two sided markets. Journal of the European Economic Association. 2003; 1(4):990-1029. https://doi.org/10.1162/154247603322493212 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1162/154247603322493212

Achrol RS. and Kotler P. Marketing in the network economy. Journal of Marketing. 1999; 63(4):146-163. https://doi.org/10.1177/00222429990634s114 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/00222429990634s114

Oskam J and Boswijk A. Airbnb: The future of networked hospitality businesses. Journal of Tourism Futures; 2016. https://doi.org/10.1108/JTF-11-2015-0048 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JTF-11-2015-0048

Zervas G, Proserpio D and Byers JW. The rise of the sharing economy: Estimating the impact of Airbnb on the hotel industry. Journal of Marketing Research. 2017; 54(5):687-705. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmr.15.0204 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1509/jmr.15.0204

Gawer A and Cusumano MA. How companies become platform leaders. MIT Sloan Management Review. 2008; 49(2):28.

Gawer A. Bridging differing perspectives on technological platforms: To- ward an integrative framework. Research Policy. 2014; 43(7):1239-1249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2014.03.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2014.03.006

Guttentag D. Airbnb: disruptive innovation and the rise of an informal tourism accommodation sector. Current Issues in Tourism. 2015; 18(12):1192-1217. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2013.827159 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2013.827159

Muller E. Delimiting disruption: Why Uber is disruptive, but Airbnb is not. International Journal of Research in Marketing. 2020; 37(1):43-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2019.10.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2019.10.004

Christensen C. The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Boston: Harvard Business School Press; 1997.

Christensen C, Raynor, ME and McDonald R. Disruptive innovation. Harvard Business Review; 2013.

Harris M and Raviv A. A theory of monopoly pricing schemes with demand uncertainty. The American Economic Review. 1981; 71(3):347-365.

Samiee S. International marketing and the internet: A research overview and the path forward. International Marketing Review. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1108/IMR-032018-0120 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IMR-03-2018-0120

Gronroos, C. Relationship approach to the marketing function in service contexts: The marketing and organisation behaviour interface. Journal of Business Research. 1990; 20(1):3-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-2963(90)90037-E DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-2963(90)90037-E

Bezovski Z, Jovanov T and Temjanovski R. The impact and the potential disruption of the blockchain technology on marketing. Journal of Economics. 2021; 6(1):13-23. https://doi.org/10.46763/JOE216.10013b DOI: https://doi.org/10.46763/JOE216.10013b

Branco F, Sun M and Villas-Boas JM. Too much information? Infor mation provision and search costs.

Marketing Science. 2016; 35(4):605-618. https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.2015.0959 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.2015.0959

Verbeke A and Greidanus NS. The end of the opportunism vs trust debate: Bounded reliability as a new envelope concept in research on MNE governance. Journal of International Business Studies. 2009; 40(9):1471-1495. https://doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2009.44 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2009.44

Grewal E, Holtz D, Fradkin A and Pearson M. Reporting bias and reciprocity in online reviews: Evidence from field experiments on Airbnb; 2015.

Huckle S, Bhattacharya R, White M and Beloff N. Internet of things, blockchain and shared economy applications. Procedia Computer Science. 2016; 98:461-466. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2016.09.074 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2016.09.074

Onder I and Treiblmaier H. Blockchain and tourism: Three research propositions. Annals of Tourism Research. 2018; 72(C):180-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2018.03.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2018.03.005

Johnson MW, Christensen CM and Kagermann H. Reinventing your business model. Harvard Business Review. 2008; 86(12):57-68.

Nakamoto S. Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system White paper; 2008.

Dwork C, Naor M. Pricing via processing or combatting junk mail. Annual International Cryptology Conference. Springer; 1992. p. 139-147. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-54048071-4_10 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-48071-4_10

Jakobsen M, Juels A. Proofs of work and bread pudding protocols. Secure information networks. Springer; 1999. p. 258-272 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-35568-9_18

Bonneau J, Miller A, Clark J, Narayanan A, Kroll JA, Felten EW. SoK: Research perspectives and challenges for bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. 2015 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy; 2015. p. 104-121. https://doi.org/10.1109/SP.2015.14 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/SP.2015.14

Zheng Z, Xie S, Dai H, Chen X, Wang H. An overview of blockchain technology: Architecture, consensus, and future trends. IEEE International Congress on Big Data (BigData congress); 2017 Jun. p. 557-564. https://doi.org/10.1109/BigDataCongress.2017.85 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/BigDataCongress.2017.85

Abd Elminaam DS, Abdual-Kade HM, Hadhoud MM, Evaluating the performance of symmetric encryption algorithms. IJ Network Security. 2010; 10(3):216-222.

Antoniadis I, Kontsas S, Spinthiropoulos K. Blockchain Applications in Marketing the Proceedings of 7th ICCMI; 2019.

Harvey CR, Moorman C, Toledo M. How blockchain will change marketing as we know it; 2018. Available at SSRN 3257511. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3257511 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3257511

Liu L, Munro M. Systematic analysis of centralized online reputation systems. Decision Support Systems. 2012; 52(2): 438-449. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2011.10.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2011.10.003

Gronroos C. From marketing mix to relationship marketing: Towards a paradigm shift in marketing. AsiaAustralia Marketing Journal. 1994; 2(1):9-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1320-1646(94)70275-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1320-1646(94)70275-6

Kollock P. The production of trust in online markets. Advances in Group Processes. 1999; 16(1):99-123.

Novak TP, Hoffman DL, Yung YF. Measuring the customer experience in online environments: A structural modeling approach. Marketing Science. 2000; 19(1):22-42. https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.

Easton G. Industrial networks: A review. Industrial Networks: A New View of Reality. In: Axelsson B, Easton G, editors. London: Routledge; 1992. p. 3-27

Bolton G, Greiner B, Ockenfels A. Engineering trust: Reciprocity in the production of reputation information. Management Science. 2013; 59(2):265-285. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1120.1609 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1120.1609

Berglund H, SandstrÖm C. Business model innovation from an open systems perspective: structural challenges and managerial solutions. International Journal of Product Development. 2013; 18(3-4):274-285. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJPD.2013.055011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJPD.2013.055011

Winston A, Yerramilli V. Monitoring in originate-todistribute lending: Reputation versus skin in the game. The Review of Financial Studies; 2021. https://doi.org/10.1093/rfs/hhab012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/rfs/hhab012

Katsikeas CS, Skarmeas D, Bello DC. Developing successful trust-based international exchange relationships. Journal of International Business Studies. 2009; 40(1):132-155. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400401 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400401

Hu N, Zhang J, Pavlou PA. Overcoming the J-shaped distribution of product reviews. Communications of the ACM. 2009; 52(10):144-147. https://doi.org/10.1145/1562764.1562800 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/1562764.1562800

Fradkin A, Grewal E, Holtz D, Pearson M. Reporting bias and reciprocity in online reviews: Evidence from field experiments on Airbnb. Working Paper. 2014. p. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1145/2764468.2764528 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/2764468.2764528

Akerlof GA. The market for “lemons”: Quality uncertainty and the market mechanism. In Uncertainty in Economics; 1978. p. 235-251. Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/ B978-0-12-214850-7.50022-X

Ertemel AV. Implications of blockchain technology on marketing. J Int Trade Logist Law. 2018; 4:35-44.

Bagozzi RP. Marketing as an Organized behavioral system of exchange: A comprehensive and analytic structure for interpreting behavior in marketing relationships. Journal of Marketing. 1974; 38(4):77-81. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224297403800414 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002224297403800414

Clemons EK. The complex problem of monetizing virtual electronic social networks. Decision Support Systems. 2009; 48(1):46-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2009.05.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2009.05.003

Xu X, Weber I, Staples M, Zhu L, Bosch J, Bass L, Pautasso C, Rimba P. A taxonomy of blockchain-based systems for architecture design. In 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA); 2017 Apr. p. 243-252. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSA.2017.33 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSA.2017.33

Mougayar W. The business blockchain: Promise, practice, and application of the next Internet technology. John Wiley and Sons; 2016.

Nam K. Dutt CS, Chathoth P, Khan MS. Blockchain technology for smart city and smart tourism: Latest trends and challenges. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research. 2021; 26(4):454-468. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2019.1585376 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2019.1585376

Zott C, Amit R. Business model design: An activity system perspective. Long Range Planning. 2010; 43(2-3):216-226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2009.07.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2009.07.004

Quinby D, Gasdia M. Share this! private accommodation and the rise of the new genrenters; 2014. Available at: www.phocuswright.com/Travel-Research/Consumer-Trends/Share-ThisPrivate-Accommodation-amp-the-Rise-of-the-New-Gen-Renter

Mao Z, Lyu J. Why travelers use Airbnb again?. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-08-2016-0439 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-08-2016-0439

McDougall GHG, Levesque T. Customer satisfaction with services: Putting perceived value into the equation. Journal of Services Marketing. 2000; 14(5):392-410. https://doi.org/10.1108/08876040010340937 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/08876040010340937

Banon J, Bor?sa GP. Decentralized Autonomous Commerce. Whitepaper Version 1.1: draft, 01 November 2020.

Vargo SL, Lusch RF. Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing. Journal of Marketing. 2004; 68(1):1-17. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.