Health Expenditure and GDP Growth in Botswana
JEL Classification: C31, C5; C51; C52, H51, H73, I18, I38, I51
Ariste, R., and Carr, J. (2003). New Considerations on the Empirical Analysis of Health Expenditures in Canada: 1966 - 1998. Government of Canada, Health Canada, Working Paper No. 02-06; p. 41. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1015789.
Baltagi, B. H. and Moscone, F. (2010). Health care expenditure and income in the OECD reconsidered: Evidence from panel data, Economic Modelling. 27(4):804-811. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2009.12.001.
Barros, P. P. (1998). The black box of health care expenditure growth determinants, Health Econ. 7(6):533-544. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)10991050(199809)7:6<533::AID-HEC374>3.0.CO;2-B.
Blomvist, A. G. and Carter, R. A. (1997). Is health care really a luxury? Journal of Health Economics. 16:207229. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-6296(96)00534-6.
Boungarasy, M. (2011). Health care expenditures in Asia countries: Panel data analysis, Economics Bulletin. 31(4):3169-3178.
Blomqvist, Ã…. G., & Carter, R. A. (1997). Is health care really a luxury?. Journal of health economics, 16(2), 207-229.
Carrion-i-Silvestre, J. L. (2005). Health care expenditure and GDP: Are they broken stationary? Journal of Health Economics. 24:839-854. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2005.01.001. PMid: 16129126.
Chakroun, M. (2010). Health care expenditure and GDP: An International panel smooth transition approach, International Journal of Economics. 4(1):189-200.
Clemente, J., Marcuello, C., Montanes, A. and Pueyo, F. (2004). On the International stability of health care expenditure functions: Are government and private functions similar? Journal of Health Economics. 23:589-613. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2003.08.007. PMid: 15120472.
CSO. (2004). Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2002/03, Main Report, Volume 1. Gaborone: Central Statistics Office, Republic of Botswana, Department of Printing and Publishing Services, Gaborone; p. 188. http://www.statsbots.org.bw/sites/ default/files/Household%20Income%20And%20
Culyer, T. (1988). Health Care Expenditures in Canada: Myth and Reality; Past and Future. Canadian Tax Foundation, Toronto; p. 110. https:// pure.york.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/health-careexpendituresin-canada-myth-and-reality-past-andfuture( 8b336a5e-769a-47d9-9c28-51b1c1255088).html.
Culyer, A. J. (1989). Cost Containment in Europe, Health Care Financing Review. 11(1):21-32. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4195143/.
Di Matteo, L. and Di Matteo, R. (1998). Evidence on the determinants of Canadian provincial government health expenditures: 1965-1991, Journal of Health Economics. 17(2):211-228. https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0167-6296(97)00020-9.
Dregen, C. and Reimers, H. E. (2005). Health care expenditures in OECD countries: A panel unit root and cointegration analysis, International Journal of Applied Econometrics and Quantitative Studies. 2:5-20.
Dybczak, K. and Przywara, B. (2010). The role of technology in health care expenditure in the EU, Economic Papers 400. Economic and Financial Affairs, European Economy; p. 26. https://ec.europa.eu/info/ business-economy-euro/economy-finance-and-europublications_ en.
Freeman, D. G. (2003). Is health care a necessity or a luxury? Pooled estimates of income elasticity from US state-level data, Applied Economics. 35(5):495-502. https://doi.org/10.1080/00036840210138374.
Fuchs, V. R. and Kramer, M. J. (1973). Determinants of expenditure for Physicians services in the United States, 1948-1968, Occasional Paper No.117. NY: NBER; p. 72. ISBN: 0-87014-247-X. https://www.nber.org/ books/fuch73-1.
Gerdtham, U. G. and Jonsson, B. (1991). Price and quantity in international comparisons of health expenditure, Applied Economics. 23:1519-1528. https://doi.org/10.1080/00036849100000204.
Gerdtham, U. G., Sogaard, F., Anderson, F. and Jonsson, B. (1992). An econometric analysis of health care expenditures: A cross-section study of the OECD countries, Journal of Health Economics. 11:63-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-6296(92)90025-V.
Getzen, T. E. (2000). Health Care is an individual necessity and a nation luxury, Journal of Health Economics. 19:259-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/S01676296(99)00032-6.
Grossman, M. (1972). On the concept of health capital and the demand for health. Journal of Political economy, 80(2), 223-255.
Goodman, A. C. (2000). New Estimates of CrossNational Health Expenditures. Detroit, Michigan: Wayne State University. http://www.econ.wayne.edu/ agoodman/research/PUBS/New_Estimates.pdf.
Hansen, P. and King, A. (1996). The derminnants of health care expenditure: A cointegration approach, Journal of Health Economics. 15:127-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-6296(95)00017-8.
Hitiris, T. (1997). Health care expenditure and integration in the countries of the European Union, Appl. Econ. 29(1):1-6. https://doi.org/10.1080/000368497327335.
Hitiris, T. and Posnett, J. (1992). The determinants and effects of health expenditure in developed countries, Journal of Health Economics. 173-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-6296(92)90033-W.
Istaiteyeh, R. M. and Ismail, M. T. (2017). Stationarity and cointegration between health care expenditure and GDP for Jordan, American Journal of Applied Sciences. 14(7):682-689. https://doi.org/10.3844/ ajassp.2017.682.689
Jaunky, V. C. and Khandaroo, A. J. (2008). Health care expenditure and GDP: An African perspective, Econometrics and International Development. 8:131-146.
Khan, H. N., Khan, M. A., Razdi, R. B., Sahfie, A. B., Shehzada, G., Krebs, K. L., et al. (2016). Health care expenditure and economic growth in SAARC countries (1995-2012): A panel causality analysis, Applied Research Quality Life. 11:639-661. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11482-015-9385-z.
Kiymaz, H., Akbulut, Y. and Demir, A. (2006). Tests of stationarity and cointegration of health care expenditure and gross domestic product: An application to Turkey, The European Journal of Health Economics. 7(4):285289. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10198-006-0375-9. PMid: 17109146.
Lago-Penas, S., Cantarero-Prieto, D. and BlazquezFernandez, C. (2013). On the relationship between GDP and health care expenditure: A new look, Economic Modelling. 32:124-129..https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2013.01.021.
Leu, R. E. (1986). The public-private mix and international health care cost. In: A. J. Culyer, & B. Jonsson, Public and Private Health Services, B. Blackwell; p. 41-63.
Liu, D., Li, R. and Wang, Z. (2011). Testing for structural breaks in panel varying coefficient models: with an application to OECD health expenditure, Empir. Econ. 40:95-118. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00181-010-0375-6.
Lothgren, M. and Gerdtham, U. (2002). New panel results on cointegration of international health expenditures and GDP. Applied Economics, 34:1679-1686. https://doi.org/10.1080/00036840110116397.
Lule, E. and Haacker, M. (2012). Fiscal Dimension of HIV/AIDS in Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland, and Uganda. Washington D.C.: World Bank. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-8807-5.
Moscone, F. and Tosetti, E. (2010). Health expenditure and income in the United States, Health Economics. 19:1385-1403. https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.1552. PMid: 19842092.
Murillo, C., Piatecki, C. and Saez, M. (1993). Health care expenditure and income in Europe. Health Economics. 2:127-138. https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.4730020206. PMid: 8261034.
Murthy, V. N. and Okunade, A. A. (2009). The core determinants of health expenditure in the African context: Some econometric evidence for policy, Health Policy. 91(1):57-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2008.10.001. PMid: 19108929.
Narayan, P. K., Narayan, S. and Smyth, R. (2011). Is health care really a luxury in OECD countries? Evidence from Alternative Price Deflators, Applied Economics. 43:3631-3643. https://doi.org/10.1080/00036841003670788.
Newhouse, J. P. (1977). Medical-care expenditures: A cross-national survey, Journal of Human Resources. 12:112-25. https://doi.org/10.2307/145602. PMid: 404354.
Okunade, A. A. (2005). Analysis and implications of the determinants of healthcare expenditure in African countries, Health Care Manag. Science. 8(4):267-76. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10729-005-4137-5. PMid: 16379410.
Okunade, A. A (1985). Engel curves for developing nations: The case of Africa, Eastern Africa Economic Review. 11(1):13-22.
Okunade, A. A. and Murthy, V. N. (2002). Technology as a major driver of health care costs: A cointegration analysis of the newhouse conjecture, Journal of Health Economics. 21:147-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0167-6296(01)00122-9.
Onyatseng, G., & Sinha, N. (2013). The nursing labour market in Botswana: An economic analysis.
Parker, S. and Wong, R. (1997). Household income and health care expenditures in Mexico, Health Policy. 40:237-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/S01688510(97)00011-0.
Parkin, D., McGuire, A. and Brian, Y. (1987). Aggregate health care expenditures and national income: Is health is a luxury good? Journal of Health Economics. 6:109127. https://doi.org/10.1016/01676296(87)90002-6.
Peters, D. H., Kandola, K., Elmendorf, A. E. and Chellaraj, G. (1999). Health Expenditures, Services and Outcomes in Africa-Basic Data and Cross national Comparisons, 1990-1996. Washington, DC: The World Bank. https://doi.org/10.1596/0-8213-4438-2.
Phelps, C. E. (2003). Health Economics. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN-13: 978-0321068989.
Phillips, P. C. and Loretan, M. (1991). Estimating long run economic equilibria, Review of Economic Studies. 5:407-436. https://doi.org/10.2307/2298004.
Piabuo, S. M. and Tieguhong, J. C. (2017). Health expenditure and economic growth â€“ A review of the literature and an analysis between the economic community for central African states (CEMAC) and selected African countries, Health Economics Review. 7(1):1-13. https:// doi.org/10.1186/s13561-017-0159-1. PMid: 28593509, PMCid: PMC5462666.
Pratt, W. R. (2015). Health care expenditures in OECD countries, identifying the cost of technology, Journal of Accounting and Finance. 15(6):66-84.
Republic of Botswana (2012). Botswana National Health Accounts for Financial Years. Gaborone: Ministry of Health, Gaborone.
Rezaei, S., Fallah, R., Karyani, A. K., Daroudi, R., Zandya, H., Zandiyan, H., et al. (2016). Determinants of healthcare expenditures in Iran: Evidence from a time series analysis, Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran (MJIRI). 30(313):1-9.
Roberts, J. (1999). Sensitivity of elasticity estimates for OECD health care spending: Analysis of a dynamic heterogeneous data field, Health Economics. 8(5):459-472. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)10991050(199908)8:5<459::AID-HEC454>3.0.CO;2-U.
Roberts, J. (2000). Spurious regression problems in the determinants of health care expenditure: A comment on Hitiris (1997), Applied Economics Letters. 7(5):279283. https://doi.org/10.1080/135048500351393.
Saez, M. and Murillo, F. C. (1994). Shared â€˜featuresâ€™ in prices: Income and price elasticities for health care expenditures, Health Economics. 3(4):267-279. https:// doi.org/10.1002/hec.4730030408. PMid: 7994326.
Schieber, G. J. (1992). Health care expenditure in major industrialized countries, 1960-1987, Health Care Financing Review. 11:159-167.
Sen, A. (2005). Is health care a luxury? New evidence from OECD data, International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics. 5(2):147-164. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10754-005-1866-4. PMid: 15912314.
Sharma, A. and Srivastava, P. (2011). Does disaggregation affect the relationship between health care expenditure and GDP? An analysis using regime shifts, Australian Economic Papers. 50(1):27-39. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8454.2011.00409.x.
Silver, M. (1970). An Economic Analysis of Variations in Medical Expenses and Work-Loss Rates. In: H. E. Klarman (Ed.), Empirical Studies in Health Economics. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
Smith, S., Newhouse, J. and Freefand, M. (2009). Income, insurance and technology: Why does health spending outpace economic growth? Health Affairs. 1276-1284. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.28.5.1276.
Sulku, S. and Caner, A. (2011). Health care expenditures and gross domestic product: The Turkish case, Journal of Health Economics. 12(1):29-38. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10198-010-0221-y. PMid: 20151170.
WHO. (2005). Botswana, Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale-Up. Geneva: World Health Organization.
WHO. (2013). Research for Universal Health Coverage. The World Health Report 2013. Geneva: World Health Organization.
WHO. (2016). Public Financing for Health in Africa: From Abuja to the SDGs. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Woodward, R. S. and Wang, L. (2012). The oh-so straight and narrow path: Can the health care expenditure curve be bent? Health Economics. 21(8):1023-1029. https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.1765. PMid: 21755571.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.