Adoption of Green HRM Practices for Building Sustainable Models in the Indian Markets
Keywords:Carbon Footprint, Employees, Engagement, Environment, Green HRM, SDG, Sustainability
AbstractTo accomplish United Nations’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030, adoption of Green HRM (GHRM) is gaining importance. In recent times, sustainability and environment protection has become an inevitable step to be considered while framing future policies and strategies towards GHRM. Almost all sectors and industries are integrating sustainable environmental processes in the day-to-day work process, one of which is adoption of green HRM practices. The present study is a detailed synthesis of recent literature from 2019- 2021 conducted with the purpose of evaluating the recent developments in adoption of GHRM implementation in various processes, related awareness and challenges, limitations and the impact of COVID-19 pandemic, if any, on implementation of Green HRM (GHRM) process in the work process. Further, the primary data was collected using In-Depth Interviews (IDIs) of one senior HR professionals from each of the four service industries namely, healthcare, banking/financial consultancy, HR consultancy and education. The purpose of IDIs was to analyze the adoption, readiness, challenges and the preparedness of GHRM practices to support environment friendly and sustainable utilization of resources in organization. Results of our study showed that Green HRM is in a very nascent stage in India and the awareness is extremely low. Though GHRM has a huge potential of application across the various HR processes, but the promotion and incentives from the government and industry leaders is lagging. These factors lead to a very poor adoption of GHRM in Indian industries. Moreover, studies have reported that individual green goals and personal moral norms of employees are the determinants and predictors of GHRM. Further, a bottom-to-top approach is recommended so that the employees are involved in boosting the adoption of green management practices.
Aboramadan, M., and Karatepe, O. M. (2021). Green Human Resource Management, perceived green organizational support and their effects on hotel employees’ behavioral outcomes. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 33(10):3199–222. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-12-2020-1440.
Adesola, M. A., Yahaya, Y., and Abodunde, S. M. (2021). An exploratory study of Green Human Resource Management and environmental performance of Nigerian manufacturing companies. Indiana Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2(7):50–7.
Al Kerdawy, M. M. A. (2019). The role of corporate support for employee volunteering in strengthening the impact of Green Human Resource Management practices on corporate social responsibility in the Egyptian firms. European Management Review. 16(4):1079–95. https://doi.org/10.1111/emre.12310.
Al Rawashdeh, M. M. S., and Khaled, A. S. (2021). A study of Green HR practices and its effect of implementation in Five Star hotels in Jordan. Psychology and Education Journal. 58(2):6452–9. https://doi.org/10.17762/pae.v58i2.3176.
Ali, M. C., Islam, K. A., Chung, S. J., Zayed, N. M., and Afrin, M. (2020). A study of Green Human Resources Management (GHRM) and Green Creativity for Human Resources Professionals. International Journal of Business and Management Future. 4(2):57–67. https://doi.org/10.46281/ijbmf.v4i2.857.
Ali, M. R., and Iqbal, S. M. J. (2020). Investigating the role of green HR practices on environmental sustainability through mediating effect of green behavior. Journal of Organization and Business. 2(2):250–70.
Ari, E., Karatepe, O. M., Rezapouraghdam, H., and Avci, T. (2020). A conceptual model for Green Human Resource Management: Indicators, differential pathways and multiple pro-environmental outcomes. Sustainability. 12(17):7089. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177089.
Amjad, F., Abbas, W., Zia-Ur-Rehman, M., Baig, S. A., Hashim, M., Khan, A., et al. (2021). Effect of Green Human Resource Management practices on organizational sustainability: The mediating role of environmental and employee performance. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 28(22):28191–206. PMid: 33527245. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-02011307-9.
Arora, M. (2020). Green HRM in India: An initiative for environmental protection. PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology. 17(10):4132–47. 2021. https://www.archives.palarch.nl/index.php/jae/ article/view/7001.
Asadi, S., Pourhashemi, S. O., Nilashi, M., Abdullah, R., Samad, S., Yadegaridehkordi, E., et al. (2020). Investigating influence of green innovation on sustainability performance: A case on Malaysian hotel industry. Journal of Cleaner Production. 258:120860. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120860.
Bagader, A., and Adelhadi, A. (2021). The need to implement Green Human Resource Management policies and practice in construction industries. Academy of Strategic Management Journal. 20:1–7.
Bassam Samir Al-Romeedy (2019). Green Human Resource Management in Egyptian travel agencies: Constraints of implementation and requirements for success. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality and Tourism. 18(4):529–48. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332845.2019.1626969.
Brundtland, G. H., and Khalid, M. (1987). WCED - World Commission on Environment and Development. Our common future. Oxford University Press, Oxford, GB.
Chams, N., and Garcia-Blandon, J. (2019). On the importance of Sustainable Human Resource Management for the adoption of sustainable development goals. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 141:109–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.10.006.
Dar, I. A., and Mishra, M. (2019). Human Capital and SME’s Internationalization: Development and validation of a Measurement Scale. Global Business Review. 10(2):1–17.
Dar, M. S., Bano, S., and Ahmed, J. (2021). Influence of Internal Sustainable Orientation on Environmental Performance: A mediating role of awareness of sustainable development goals. Journal of Managerial Sciences. 15.
Emmanuel, A. A., Mansor, D. Z., Rasdi, M., Binti, R., and Rashid, A. A. (2020). Conceptual viewpoint on the needs for creating Green Human Resource Management Practices Awareness of Hotel Industry in Nigeria. Issues and Challenges (May 14, 2020). International Journal of Management. 11(4):295–304. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3600896.
Fawehinmi, O., Yusliza, M. Y., Mohamad, Z., Faezah, J. N., and Muhammad, Z. (2020a). Assessing the green behaviour of academics: The role of Green Human Resource Management and environmental knowledge. International Journal of Manpower. 41(7):879–900. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJM-07-2019-0347.
Fawehinmi, O., Yusliza, M. Y., Wan Kasim, W. Z., Mohamad, Z., and Sofian A. H. M. A. (2020b). Exploring the interplay of Green Human Resource Management, Employee Green Behavior and Personal Moral Norms. SAGE Open. 10(4):2158244020982292. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244020982292.
Gardas, B. B., Mangla, S. K., Raut, R. D., Narkhede, B., and Luthra, S. (2019). Green talent management to unlock sustainability in the oil and gas sector. Journal of Cleaner Production. 229:850–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.05.018.
Hameed, Z., Khan, I. U., Islam, T., Sheikh, Z., and Naeem, R. M. (2020). Do green HRM practices influence employees’ environmental performance? International Journal of Manpower. 41(7):1061–79. https://doi.org/10.1108/ IJM-08-2019-0407.
Hussain, M. S., Karamat, M., Talha, M. A., and Yousaf, W. (2019). The influence of Green Human Resource Practices on the Environmental Presentation in Malaysia: Mediating Role of Governmental Nationality Activities towards Situation. iRASD Journal of Management. 1(2):87–96. https://doi.org/10.52131/ jom.2019.0102.0008.
Jayabalan, N., Zafir, M. M., Kumar, R. M. H. M., Hayati, Y., and Mai, F. M. B. (2020). The role of OCBE on Green HRM towards performance sustainability. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change. 13(5):388–99.
Jerónimo, H. M., Henriques, P. L., de Lacerda, T. C., da Silva, F. P., and Vieira, P. R. (2020). Going green and sustainable: The influence of green HR practices on the organizational rationale for sustainability.
Journal of Business Research. 112:413–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.11.036.
Koshish, J. (2019). Green HRM - People management commitment to environmental sustainability (January 6, 2019). Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Digital Strategies for Organizational Success. SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3323800.
Mandago, R. J. (2019). Influence of Green Human Resource Management Practices on environmental sustainability in service based state corporations in Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, JKUAT-COHRED). 2021. http://ir.jkuat.ac.ke/handle/123456789/5209.
Mehrajunnisa, M., Jabeen, F., Faisal, M.N. and Mehmood, K. (2021). Prioritizing Green HRM practices from policymaker’s perspective”. International Journal of Organizational Analysis. Vol. ahead-of-print No. aheadofprint. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJOA-12-2019-1976.
Morgan, D., and Rayner, J. (2019). Development of a scale measure for green employee workplace practices. The Journal of New Business Ideas and Trends. 17(1):1–25.
Mukherjee, S., Bhattacharjee, S., Paul, N., and Banerjee, U. (2020). Assessing Green Human Resource Management practices in higher educational institute. TEST Engineering and Management. 82.
Mwita, K. M. (2019). Conceptual review of Green Human Resource Management Practices. East African Journal of Social and Applied Sciences. 1(2):13–20.
Nawangsari, L. C., and Sutawidjaya, A. H. (2019, May). How the Green Human Resources Management (GHRM) process can be adopted for the organization business. In 1st International Conference on Economics, Business, Entrepreneurship, and Finance (ICEBEF 2018). Atlantis Press. pp. 463–5. PMid: 31771089 PMCid: PMC6960819. https://doi.org/10.2991/icebef18.2019.100.
Nisar, Q. A., Haider, S., Ali, F., Jamshed, S., Ryu, K., and Gill, S. S. (2021). Green Human Resource Management practices and environmental performance in Malaysian green hotels: The role of green intellectual capital and pro-environmental behavior. Journal of Cleaner Production. 311:127504. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.127504.
Piwowar-Sulej, K. (2021). Human resources development as an element of sustainable HRM-with the focus on production engineers. Journal of Cleaner Production. 278:124008. PMid: 32901179 PMCid: PMC7470767. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.124008.
Rushya, R. M., and Dissanayake, D. M. T. D. (2020). The relationship between Green Human Resource Management and environmental sustainability: A case based on state commercial bank in Matale District. Wayamba Journal of Management. 11(2). https://doi.org/10.4038/wjm.v11i2.7473.
Saha, S., Sarker, R., and Ahmed, S. M. (2020). Impact of Green Human Resource Management (GHRM) practices in garment industry: Bangladesh perspective. Int J Manag Account. 2(2):22–30. https://doi.org/10.34104/ijma.020.022030.
Sanyal, S., Hisam, M. W., and Baawain, A. M. S. (2020). Entrepreneurial orientation, network competence and human capital: The internationalization of SMEs in Oman. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business. 7(8):473–83. https://doi.org/10.13106/ jafeb.2020.vol7.no8.473.
Sathasivam, K., Abu Bakar, R., and CheHashim, R. (2021). Embracing organisational environmental sustainability: Experiences in Green Human Resource Management. Business Strategy and Development. 4(2):123–35. https://doi.org/10.1002/bsd2.133.
Shaban, S. (2019). Reviewing the concept of Green HRM (GHRM) and its application practices (Green Staffing) with suggested research agenda: A review from literature background and testing construction perspective. International Business Research. 12(5):86–94. Retrieved from: http://ibr.ccsenet.org. https://doi.org/10.5539/ibr.v12n5p86.
Sharma, S., Prakash, G., Kumar, A., Mussada, E. K., Antony, J., and Luthra, S. (2021). Analysing the relationship of adaption of green culture, innovation, green performance for achieving sustainability: Mediating role of employee commitment. Journal of Cleaner Production. 303:127039. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.127039.
Suba, M., Inayath Ahamed, S. B., and Priya, B. S. (2021). Green-HRM: A strategic move towards the CSR through Green Employee Performance. International Journal of Management. 11(11):2020.
Tahir, M., Safwan, N., Usman,A., and Adnan, A. (2020). Green HRM as predictor of firms’ environmental performance and role of employees’ environmental organizational citizenship behavior as a mediator. Journal of Research and Reviews in Social Sciences Pakistan. 3(1):699–715.
Usman, M., and Mat, N. (2021). Green Human Resource Management: Implication towards environmental performance in developing countries. International Journal of Economics, Management and Accounting. 29(1):207–21.
Waxin, M. F., Knuteson, S. L., and Bartholomew, A. (2020). Outcomes and key factors of success for ISO14001 certification: Evidence from an emerging Arab Gulf country. Sustainability. 12(1):258. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010258.
Wright, P. M. (2020). Rediscovering the “Human” in strategic human capital. Human Resource Management Review. 100781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2020.100781
Yafi, E., Tehseen, S., and Haider, S. A. (2021). Impact of green training on environmental performance through mediating role of competencies and motivation. Sustainability. 13(10):5624. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13105624.
Yong, J. Y., Yusliza, M. Y. and Fawehinmi, O. O. (2020), Green Human Resource Management: A systematic literature review from 2007 to 2019, Benchmarking: An International Journal. 27(7):2005–7. https://doi.org/10.1108/BIJ-12-2018-0438.
Yusoff, Y. M., Nejati, M., Kee, D. M. H., and Amran, A. (2020). Linking Green Human Resource Management practices to environmental performance in the hotel industry. Global Business Review. 21(3):663–80. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972150918779294.