Effect of Air Pollutants on the Manifestation of Bronchial Reactivity in a Population Living in Proximity to a Power Plant

Jump To References Section


  • ,AL
  • ,AL
  • ,AL
  • ,AL
  • ,AL
  • ,AL




Air Pollution, Kosovo, Power Plant, Respiratory Health


The discharge of pollutants into the air directly affects the bronchial reactivity of the population residing in the region around the power plants of Kastriot, Kosovo. Pollutants such as CO, CO2, SO2, NO2, O3, Particulate Matter (PM), free persistent radicals, toxic metals such as cadmium (K) and copper (Cu), and radioactive pollutants (for example, radioactive remains of radon (Rn)) are all discharged into the air by these power plants. In this research, parameters of lung function were determined by using body plethysmography. Resistance of the air ways (Raw), Intra-Thoracic Gas Volume (ITGV), specific airways resistance (SRaw), and specific conductance (SGaw) were measured and calculated. The study was performed with two groups, a control group consisting of 40 healthy students and an experimental group composed of 58 permanent residents of the Kastriot region. The results of the study indicated that the mean values for SRaw and SGaw were significantly affected in the experimental group (p < 0.01) relative to the control group for which the results were not significant (p > 0.1). The study confirmed that smoking aggravates the negative effects of air pollution on health (p < 0.01). The findings indicate that the situation of the population exposed to this level of air pollution is serious. Based on these findings, any further exposure to this level of air pollution represents a very high risk to the general health of this population and to their respiratory health in particular.


Download data is not yet available.



How to Cite

Haliti, A., Islami, P., Mustafa, L., Dauti, A., Bozalija, A., & Islami, H. (2019). Effect of Air Pollutants on the Manifestation of Bronchial Reactivity in a Population Living in Proximity to a Power Plant. Toxicology International, 25(4), 204–212. https://doi.org/10.18311/ti/2018/v25i4/24137
Received 2019-08-25
Accepted 2019-09-10
Published 2019-10-22



United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Retrieved on 23 July. 2016.

WHO, Estimated deaths and DALYs attributable to selected environmental risk factors, by WHO, Member State. 2002.

American Heart Association. Evidence growing of air populations link to heart disease, death. 2010.

Guardian Media Group. Study links traffic pollution to thousands of deaths. 2008.

United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP, Office for the coordination of the humanitarian Affairs, OCHA, Assessment Mission Kosovo-February, 17-26, 2003.Report Industrial Complex in Kastriot-Power Plant. 2003; 32:9−10.

Sunyer J. Urban air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A review, Europe Resp. J. 2001; 17:1024−33. https://doi.org/10.1183/09031936.01.1751024 0. PMid: 11488305.

Raaschou-Nielsen O, Andersen ZJ, Hevidberg M, Jensen SS, Ketzel M, Sorensen M, Tjonneland A. Lung cancer incidence and long-term exposure to air pollution from traffic, Environmental Health Perspectives. 2011; 119:860−65.https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1002353. PMid: 21227886, PMCid: PMC3114823.

Raaschou-Nielsen O, Andersen ZJ, Hevidberg M, Jensen SS, Ketzel M, Sorensen M, Tjonneland A. Air pollution from traffic and cancer incidence: A Daish cohort study, Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source. 2011; 10:67. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-10-67.PMid: 21771295, PMCid: PMC3157417.

Schildcrout J, Sheppard L, Lumley T, Slaughter J, Koenig J, Shapiro G. Ambient air pollution and asthma exacerbations in children an eight-city analysis, Am. J. of Epidemiol. 2006; 164:505−17. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwj225. PMid: 16798793.

Brunekreef B, Janssen N, de Hartog J, Harssema H, Knape M, wan Vlient. Air pollution from truck traffic and lung function in children living near motorways, Epidemiology.1997; 8:298−303. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001648199705000-00012. PMid: 9115026.

Janssen N, Brunekreef B, Wan V, Aarts F, Melieeefste K, Harssema H. The relationship between air pollution from heavy traffic and allergic-sensitization, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, and respiratory symptoms in Dutch schoolchildren, Environ Health Perspect. 2003; 111:1512−18. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.6243. PMid: 12948892, PMCid: PMC1241655.

Pope CA III, Dockery DW. Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: Lines that connect, J. Air Waste Manag.Assoc. 2006; 56:709−42. https://doi.org/10.1080/10473289 .2006.10464485.

Montiel-Davalos A, Faro-Moreno E, Lopez-Marure R. PM2.5 and PM10 induce the expression of adhesion molecules and the adhesion of monocytic cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, Inhal. Toxicol. 2007; 19:91-98. https://doi.org/10.1080/08958370701495212. PMid: 17886056.

Wong CM, Lam TH, Peters J, Hedley AJ, Ong SG, Tam A, Liu J, Spiegelhalter DJ. Comparison between two districts of the effects of an air pollution intervention on bronchial responsiveness in primary school children in Hong Kong, J. Epidemiol. Community Health. 1998; 52:571−78. https:// doi.org/10.1136/jech.52.9.571, PMid: 10320858, PMCid: PMC1756761.

Peslin R. Body plethysmography, In: Techniques in the Life Sciences: Respiratory Physiology. 4th Edn. Conty Clare, Ireland, Elsevier Scientific Publishers; 1984. p 1−26.

Coates A, Peslin R, Rodenstein D, Stocks J. Measurement of lung volumes by plethysmography, Eur. Respir. J. 1997; 10:1415−27. https://doi.org/10.1183/09031936.97.1006141 5. PMid: 9192953.

Stocks J, Marchal F, Kreamer R, Gutkowski P, Bar-Yishay E, Godfrey S. Plethysmographic assessment of functional residual capacity and airway resistance. In: Stocks J, Sly P, Tepper R, Morgan W, Eds. Infant Respiratory Function Testing. New York, Wiley Liss; 1996. 191−99.

Dockery D, Arden PC, Xu X, Spengler J, Ware J, Fay M, Ferris B, Speizer F. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities, The New Engl. J.of Med. 1993; 329:1753−59. https://doi.org/10.1056/ NEJM199312093292401. PMid: 8179653.

Samet J, Dominici F, Curriero F, Coursac I, Zeger S. Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in 20 U.S. cities 19871994, The New Engl. J. of Med. 2000; 343:1742−49. https:// doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200012143432401. PMid: 11114312.

Katsouyanni K, Touloumi G, Spix C, Schwartz J, Balducci F, Medina S, Rossi G, Wojtyniak B, Sunyer J, Bacharova L, Schouten JP, Ponka A, Anderson HR. Short term effects of ambient sulphur dioxide and particulate matter on mortality in 12 European cities: Results from time series data from the APHEA project, BMJ. 1997; 134:1658. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.314.7095.1658. PMid: 9180068, PMCid: PMC2126873.

Martuzzi M, Mitis F, Iavarone I, Serinelli M. Health Impact of PM10 and Ozone in 13, Italian Cities. WHO; 2006.

Laden F, Schwartz J, Speizer F, Dockery D. Reduction in fine particulate air pollution and mortality-extended follow-up of the Harvard six cities study. Am. J. of Respir. and Crit. Care Med. 2006; 173. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200503443OC. PMid: 16424447, PMCid: PMC2662950.

Boezen M, Schouten J, Rijcken B, Vonk J, Gerritsen J, Van der Zee S, Hoek G, Brunerkreef B, Postma D. Peak expiratory flow variability, bronchial responsiveness, and susceptibility to ambient air pollution in adults, Am. J.Respire. Crit. Care Med. 1998; 158:1848−54. https://doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm.158.6.9804072. PMid: 9847277.

Kastrati BB, Islami P, Kryeziu T, Rugova M, Kukaj T, Islami H. Increase of histamine concentration in the sputum of exposed workers a case-control study, British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research. 2016; 15:1−11. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25342.

Hyseini K, Iljazi A, Morina N, Iljazi F, Islami H. Comparison of methylxanthines (doxofylline and diprophylline) effect in patients with bronchial hyper reactivity and bronchial asthma, RJPBCS. 2017; 5:500−09.

Morina N, Iljazi A, Iljazi F, Hyseini K, Bozalija A, Islami H.Effect of antileukotriene (zileuton) in patients with bronchial asthma (emphasized reactors, moderate reactors, and non-reactors), RJPBCS. 2017; 8:334−42.