Thermal Processing of Traditional Fermented Pearl Millet Porridge in Ready-to-Eat (RTE) Form


  • Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Department of Food Process Engineering, College of Food and Dairy Technology, Chennai, 600 052, India


“Millet Porridge†is a south Indian beverage prepared by double fermentation of millet flour with broken rice is popularly called as ‘koozh’ in tamil. Pearl millet porridge packed in retortable pouches was thermally processed to enhance the shelf life. The Ball’s Process time and F0 value obtained were 17 min and 3 min respectively. The retort pouches were stored at room temperature and analysed for changes in physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory properties at 0th, 60th, 120th and 180th days of storage. During storage, acidity increased with decrease in pH; moisture and ‘Nitrogen Free Extract’ content changed significantly, whereas no significant difference was seen in crude protein, crude fibre, fat and total ash. The microbiological analysis showed the absence of total plate count, Escherichia coli and yeast /mold on retort processed porridge whereas it was observed before processing. Sensory evaluation revealed that the porridge was within the acceptable limit during 180 days of storage at ambient conditions.


Pearl Millet Porridge, Retort Processing, Retortable Pouches, RTE, Thermal Processing.

Full Text:


Maru, A. and Musyuni, P. Advancement in food technology through retort processing and food safety guidelines. Inter. J. Appl. Biol. Pharmac. Technol., 2011, 2, 234-241.

Gokhale, S.V. and Lele, S.S. Retort process modelling for Indian traditional foods. J. Fd. Sci. Technol., 2014, 51, 3134-3143.

Jaybhaye, R.V., Pardeshi, I.L.,Vengaiah, P.C. and Srivastav, P.P. Processing and technology for millet based food products: A review. J. Ready to Eat Fd., 2014,1, 32-48.

Selhub, E.M, Loga, A.C. and Bested, A.C. Fermented foods, microbiota and mental health. J. Phsiol. Anthropol., 2014, 33, 2-10

Kumar, P.P., Begum, V.H. and Kumaravel, S. Mineral nutrients of pazhayasadham: A traditional fermented food of Tamil Nadu, India. Int. J. Nutr. Metabol., 2012, 4, 151-152.

Ilango, S. and Antony, U. Assessment of the microbiological quality of koozh, a fermented millet beverage. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res., 2014, 8, 308-312.

Antony, U. and Chandra,T.S. Antinutrient reduction and enhancement in protein, starch, and mineral availability in fermented flour of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). J. Agri. Fd. Chem., 1998, 46, 2578-2582.

Antony, U., Sripriya, G. and Chandra,T.S. Effect of fermentation on the primary nutrients in finger millet (Eleusine coracana). J. Agri. Fd. Chem.,1996, 44, 2616-2618.

Karthiayani, A., Baskaran, D., Ramasamy, D. and Sivakumar, T. Development of low-cost mini retort and its usage in preservation of foods. Ind. J. Sci., 2016, 23, 89-96.

Ramaswamy, H.S. and Singh, R.P. Chapter 2: Sterilization process engineering. Handbook of food engineering practice, 1997.

AOAC, 2000. Method 941.16. Proximate Analysis.Official Methods of Analyses of the Associate of Official Analytical Chemist, (17ed.) AOAC, Washington D.C., USA.

Subastri, A., Ramamurthy, C.,Suyavaran, A., Mareeswaran, R., Mandal, P., Rellegadla, S. and Thirunavukkarasu, C. Nutrient profile of porridge made from Eleusine coracana (L.) grains: effect of germination and fermentation. J. Fd. Sci. Technol., 2015, 52, 6024-6030.

FSSAI (Food Safety and Standards Authority of India) 2012. Manual of Methods of Analysis of Foods Microbiological Testing.Lab Manual 14. Microbiology of foods.

Ranganna, S. 1995. Handbook of analysis and quality control of fruits and vegetable products (2nd edition) Tata MC.Graw Hill Publishing Co-Ltd, New Delhi.

Snedecor, G.W. and Cocharan,W.G.Statistical methods.Eighth edition, IOWA State University Press. USA, 1994.

Thirumangaimannan, G. and Gurumurthy,K. A study on the fermentation pattern of common millets in Koozh preparation- A traditional South Indian food. Ind. J. Tradition. Knowled., 2013, 12, 512-517.

Topno, P.N., Jayaprakash, S.H., Varadaiah, V., Sheshagiri, S.H., Srinivas, P.M. and Naidu, M. Ginger-garlic paste in retort pouches and its quality. J. Fd. Proc. Enginee., 2013, 36, 1-8.

Namratha, J., Asna, U. and Prasad, N.N. Effect of storage on resistant starch content of processed ready-to-eat foods. Fd. Chem., 2002, 79, 395-400.

Abhishek, V., Kumar, R., George, J., Nataraju, S., Lakshmana, J.H., Kathiravan, T., Madhukar, N. and Nadanasabapathi, S. Development of retort process for ready-to-eat (RTE) soy-peas curry as a meat alternative in multilayer flexible retort pouches. Int. Fd. Res. J., 2014, 21, 1553-1558.

Shihab, M.C.P., Hafeeda, P., Kumar, R., Kathiravan, T. and Nadanasabapathi, S. Development and evaluation of shelf stable retort processed ready-to-drink (RTD) traditional ThariKanchipayasam in flexible retort pouches. Int. Fd. Res. J., 2013, 20, 1765-1770.

Lakshmana, J.H., Jayaprahash, C., Kumar, R., Kumaraswamy, M.R., Kathiravan, T. and Nadanasabapathi, S. Development and evaluation of shelf stable retort pouch processed readyto-eat tender jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) curry. J. Fd. Proces. Technol. 2013, 4, 1-14.

Lavanya, M.N., Kumar,R., Saikiran, K.C.H.S. and Bhosale,Y.K. Development of retort pouch processed Ready to Eat (RTE) Mutton Kheema Biryani. Ind. J. Sci., 2016, 23, 11-25.

Kumari, M., Urooj, A. and Prasad, N.N. Effect of storage on resistant starch and amylose content of cereal-pulse based ready-to-eat commercial products. Fd. Chem., 2007, 102, 1425-1430.

Anandh, C.P., Ramasamy, D., Surendraraj, A. and Gnanalakkshmi, K.S. Process optimization and shelf life study of retort processed rose flavoured milk. Int. J. Fd. Agri. Veter. Sci., 2014, 4, 36-46.

Khan, M.A., Semwal, A.D., Sharma, G.K., Mahesh, C., Nataraj, S., Anantharaman Srihari, K. and Bawa, A.S. Development and evaluation of long shelf-life ambient stable chapaties without the use of chemical preservatives. J. Fd. Proces. Technol., 2011, 2.

Anu Ranjani, P., Karthiayani, A. and Baskaran, D. Processing of traditional finger millet porridge using Retort Technology. J. Fd. Agri. Environ., 2018, 16, 26-30.


  • There are currently no refbacks.