Quality Deterioration of Rice Grains under High Temperature Stress
Keywords:Rice grain quality, milling percentage, head rice recovery, starch, amylose, temperature stress
High temperatures, which cause a decline in grain weight and quality, are one of the most significant environmental concerns checking productivity of rice in tropical areas. To combat these problems, understanding the consequences of high temperature stress on nutritional qualities of rice is imperative. An experiment was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Pattambi during 2019-2020 with rice variety Jyothi cultivated during five dates of planting [June 1st (D1), June 30th (D2), October 1st (D3), October 30th (D4) and January 1st (D5)] under open condition (O) and climate-controlled green house (GH). Grains obtained from different treatments were analyzed for different quality parameters like milling percentage, head rice recovery, starch, amylose, protein, fat and mineral (Ca, Fe, Zn, P) content. Highest milling percentage, head rice recovery, starch, amylose, protein, fat and mineral (Ca, Fe, Zn, P) content were observed during June 1st planting and lowest during January 1st planting. When comparing the two growing conditions, grains obtained from open condition had high milling percentage, head rice recovery, starch, amylose, protein, fat and mineral (Ca, Fe, Zn, P) content than that under climate-controlled greenhouse. The study shows that high temperature stress on plants can be managed by early sowing of rice cultivars in all the three seasons viz. virippu, mundakan and puncha and rice grains obtained from virippu sowing gives good quality grains as compared to that of mundakan and puncha planted grains.
IPCC [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change]. 2007. Climate change 2007-The physical science basis. In: Pachauri, R. K. and Reisinger, A. (eds.), Climate change and its impacts in the near and long term under different scenarios, Synthesis Report. Geneva, Switzerland, 43-54.
Ito, S., Hara, T., Kawanami, Y., Watanabe, T., Thiraporn, K., Ohtake, N., Sueyoshi, K., Mitsui, T., Fukuyama, T. and Takahashi, Y. Carbon and nitrogen transport during grain filling in rice under high-temperature conditions. J. Agron. Crop Sci., 2009, 195, 368-376. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2009.00376.x
Umemoto, T. and Terashima, K. Research note: Activity of granule-bound starch synthase is an important determinant of amylose content in rice endosperm. Funct. Plant Biol., 2002, 29, 1121-1124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1071/PP01145
Jin, Z. X., Yang, J., Qian, C. R., Liu, H. Y., Jin, X. Y. and Qiu, T. Q. Effects of temperature during grain filling period on activities of key enzymes for starch synthesis and rice grain quality. Chin. J. Rice Sci., 2005, 19, 377-380.
Umemoto, T., Nayamura, Y. and Ishika, N. Activity of starch synthase and the amylose content in rice endosprem. Phytochem., 1955, 40, 1613-1616. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(95)00380-P
Jiang, W.H., Dian, W.M. and Wu, P. Effect of high temperature on fine structure of amylopectin in rice endosperm by reducing the activity of starch branching enzyme. Phytochem., 2003, 63, 53-59. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00005-0
Adair, C. R. The Mc Gill miller method for determining the milling quality of small sample of rice. Rice J., 1952, 55, 21-23.
AOAC [Association of Official Analytical Chemists], 1998. AOAC® peer-verified methods program: manual on policies and procedures. AOAC International.
Sadasivam, S. and Manickam, A. Biochem. Methods for Agric. Sci. Willey Eastern Ltd., New Delhi, 1992, 73.
Perkin-Elmer. Anal. methods At. Spectrophotometry. Perkin-Elmer Corporation, USA, 1982, 114p. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-4485(82)90253-6
Jackson, M.L. Soil chem. anal., Prentis Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi, 1973, 299.
Oh-e, I., Saitoh, K. and Kuroda, T. Effects of high temperature on growth, yield and dry-matter production of rice grown in the paddy field. Plant Prod. Sci., 2007, 10, 412-422. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1626/pps.10.412
Kobata,T. and Uemuki, N. High temperatures during the grain-filling period do not reduce the potential grain dry matter increase of rice. Agron. J., 2004, 96, 406-414. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2004.0406
FAO [Food and Agricultural Organization]. 2016. Climate change and food security: Risks and responses, Rome (availablehttp://www.fao.org).
How to Cite
All the articles published in IJND are distributed under a creative commons license. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright of their work (all usages allowed except for commercial purpose).
Please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org for permissions related to commercial use of the article(s).